Scotland was very slow to industrialization than other parts of the region. There were a number of attempts to awake Scottish consciousness. The famous Covenants revolution was such an attempt. Relying on sixteenth century philosopher George Buchanan's arguments that royal power came from the people and if rulers forget it, people can take that powers back, there were movements in the late eighteenth century and early nineteenth century against the rulers. The Marquis of Montrose's brutal attempts at repression with an army of Irish Catholic mercenaries were also to feed into the Scottish consciousness. Like all the Stewarts, Charles II learned little from the past and, while he survived, his brother paid the price of attempts to impose bishops and subsequently Catholicism. This was the beginning of self-rule by Scots. The Scotland has seen a high level of intellectual activity by the end of the sixteenth century. Level of literacy in this area was higher than that of England. There were lot of discussions and debates on intellectual subjects. But their high obsession with religion was a major challenge. The cash trapped Scots were happy with the Union of 1707.Even though there were some resistance Scots generally has ambition for merger with England.
With the Act of Union, England and Scotalnd became a union called Kingdom of Great Britain. Till then both these regions were sharing a monarch but retined soverign Parliament. But the new act abolished both Parliaments with a new Parliament of Great Britain. The subsequent Scottish Enlightment and industrial revelotion had helped Scotland to become a major intellectual power house of Europe. But after the second world war had left it again as a cash straped region. During the war Scotland had provided a disproportionate number of recruits for the army. Many young lives lost and many villages and communities suffered crucially. During the 1920s and 1930s global recession had also played a major role in increasing poverty and unemployement scenario in Scotland. During Second World War period naval bases and infrastructure in Scotalnd was a target for German forces. The highlands again suffered huge human loss due to large number recruits from this area for UK army.
(Kellas, J. G. The Scottish political system. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1984)
But in the end of 20th century it has been in the process of regaing its past glory with the strength of cultural and economic renaissance and resurging financial services sector. But the Union had created many problems for Scotland also. Culture, language and land ownership situation had been distroyed. Earlier ownership of land was with the Clan, but British had encouraged Clan chiefs to become owners of the land in their control. This has created a lot impact on the lives of Scots. So many people were forced eviciton from highland areas, popularly later known as highland clearance. People had moved to low land areas. However it was the Scottish agricultural revelotuion, which changed the low land area and the traditional farming methods were replaced by efficient and stable agricultural syste. This also ignited more migration to low land area. The agricultural revolution had helped Scottish agriculture to become the most modern productive system in Europe.
The first two world wars