Five years later, since his last admission due to Upper respiratory infection, he was again admitted for three days due to URI accompanied with Rheumatoid Arthritis and in the month of September 2005, he was treated for Gastritis.
Anywhere around the world, there seemed to be an outbreak of Respiratory infections which includes viruses such as the influenza virus, SARS, and now the avian flu virus. Respiratory illness is a common chronic health problem and places a significant financial burden on the health care system. Respiratory symptoms are significantly higher among poorer children, those in the inner city, and among minority populations. Immigrants from outside North America and Europe constitute over twenty percent of Metro Toronto residents, yet relatively little is known about their experience of respiratory illness. (Thompson et. Al. 2004)
There have been many organizations that focus on the needs of the ill older adults. NHS organisations in England recognises the importance of the NSF for Older People and the emerging practice and policies related to this, such as Intermediate Care, the single assessment process, the 1999 Health Act Flexibilities and has responded by re-focusing its activity to realign more closely with the local and national priorities. (2005)
Published in 2001, this NSF focuses on people who are over 50 and still active but who need to be able to maximise and maintain their health as well as people with age related needs who may have more complex social and medical problems. (2005)
The Department of Health, Services and Social Safety applies palliative care services which aims to achieve the best quality of life possible for patients and their family through active identification, holistic assessment and appropriate management of problems, when progressive advanced disease is not responsive to curative treatment.(29)
There are over a half million older adult aged 65 or over who are living in care homes (nursing and personal care) and a large number end their lives in these care settings. Unfortunately, care homes can only provide appropriate terminal care if barriers to the provision of care are addressed. The National Council for Hospice and Specialist Palliative Care Services (NCH&SPCS) holds documents containing practice recommendations and therefore, the provision of appropriate terminal care makes the process of dying more comfortable and meaningful for a person and their family.
Nightingale's (1860) theory on nursing evolves around the concept that the patient's recovery is highly related to the conditions of his environment. The environment of a patient has a direct effect on his recovery or his deterioration. According to Nightingale, "Nature alone cures." With that she stresses on the healing properties of the physical environment of the patient; fresh air, light, warmth, cleanliness and a suitable diet. The environment not only refers to the physical aspect but also to the psychological and social environment surrounding the patient.
Healthy communication with the patient and healthy environment keeps the patient's mind active and stimulated. Here Nightingale stresses that communication should be soothing and a form of