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POLITICAL SCIENCE: Study guide - Essay Example

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The differences are very important to justification of different types of governments and moral values (Hobbes 2006 & Dent 2005).
The social contract theory has explained the significance of legitimate forms of governance. The starting point of the explanation has always been the state when no form of any governance exists (Thomas & Dale 2009).
According to Hobbes, people are usually guided by a particular driving force or a reason. People in state of nature on the other hand were being guided by natural primitive, nature like animal instincts. Accordingly, Hobbes believes that moral concepts like ideology of good and evil does not subsist in state of nature (Hobbes 2006 & Dent 2005). Man therefore could employ any available means to protect his life and thing around him. Man had to use some means to escape this and according to Hobbes, the laws of nature helped man to find peace and also allow man to natural right to things as long as others would emulate the mutual transfer of rights is termed as the "contract"
Locke John believes many of the ideas by Hobbes like contract. Nonetheless, the some conditions they differ. In the view of the state of nature, Locke believes that people could still maintain peace without the civil society because there were natural laws which guided everyone. War is also another aspect of sate of nature but different from state of nature; according to Locke (Thomas & Dale 2009).
Theories of Political Powers: democracy is very tricky idea to conceptualize. It basically means choosing the policy making processes that reflect people's preferences. Democratic theories are the main principles that specify the means through which government decisions are made. It's based of five principles; equal opportunity in voting, effectual participation, liberal perceptive, Citizen Control of the agenda, and Inclusion.
Pluralist theory - groups with like minded interests influences the public policies by pushing forward their concerns in an organized manner (i.e. collective effort); Elite and Class theories- purports that the society is stratified along some class according to education or earning and that the upper class elite manipulate government's decisions. Ownership of wealth or property is foundation of power. Hyperpluralism on the other hand claim that there is a lot of means through which groups of people can manipulate policies and that groups are rulers while state is subject. Bureaucratic theories - suggests that groups of organizations of experts or specialists, a rational type of body formed on the basis of specific duties, not on basis of influence of a person and customs and which manipulate policies (Kritzer & Richards 2003). .
Main Articles to the Constitution: United States: article I- is a description of the congress and outlines the powers of the legislature and their limits. Article II- is a description of the presidency which is the executive branch of government, It Vests authority of executive to the president's jurisdiction. Article III- is a description of the judiciary and court system with inclusion of the Supreme Court; It Describes powers and limits of judicial branch. Article IV- this article describes the connection between States and the federal government and also describes citizens rights to the states as well. ...Show more


The state of Nature is basically described as the situation when there is no any form of governance in existence, and this has been used in social theory to give explanation for political authority. This is one of the greatest works in history that was put forward by john Locke, Hobbes Thomas and Rousseau Jean-Jacques…
Author : wilbertfritsch
POLITICAL SCIENCE: Study guide essay example
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