Q1. In the psychosocial model of shamanic trance, the shaman plays the role of mediator between spirit worlds. The Hmong, for example, recognize the propensity for everyone's spirit to migrate, but the shaman or txiv neeb has the ability to intentionally send his spirit outward during his lifetime…
The shamanic experience fits into the culture's mundis imaginalis, the way the members of a certain culture perceive the world. The shaman's role as healer requires communal recognition and acceptance. When a shaman is in training, there are often spirit helpers and human assistants who facilitate the process of the shamanic journey. The shaman's assistant will help to increase the vividness of the visions summoned in the shamanic trance by encouraging recollection of some things and avoiding others. In a trance state, mental imagery resulting from temporal and occipital lobe activity is perceived as real. The more perceptually real and detailed a vision is, the greater its cognitive and psychological effect will be. Just as keeping a dream diary will tend to sharpen the recall and intensify a person's dreams, the shaman's training has a similar effect. One essential aspect of training is the ability to control visions. The trainee learns to start and stop visions at will. The processes are kindled and tuned by the trainer. A shaman who is unable to control the vision process will be perceived as a bad shaman, as lack of control indicates that the spirits are in charge. In societies where oral traditions are observed as the main method of transferring information from one generation to the next, the shaman helps the community to remember the sacral world by recalling and interpreting and re-enacting it. The shaman is active in different arenas, including the role of diagnostician and healer. But the role in preserving the tradition of the culture also constitutes a vital contribution to society.
Q2. The therapeutic triangle is described by Jane Atkinson in her investigations on the Wana people in Sulawesi, Indonesia. Contrary to Western medicine, where the pathological process and the healing rituals are confined to the patient suffering the symptoms, the shamanistic healing traditions extend treatment to involve the entire community. The triangle consists of patient, shaman and community and the relationship between each dyad is affected by the relationship to the third party. In show of solidarity (kasintuwu) the entire community may contribute to or participate in the healing in some way. The shamanic leader becomes the focus of attention during the sance and may fall into unconsciousness until the hungry spirit is revived with food or drink. The patient may in some cases be replaced by a surrogate and not take part in the actual ceremony at all. As the relationship between shaman and community are elaborated, the role of the patient in this therapeutic triangle is decreased. In contrast, Western understanding of healing remains myopically focused on the patient alone, or at best the patient healer dyad. Therefore Atkinson stresses the need for ethnologists to use descriptive models which reflect the complex, culturally differentiated negotiation that takes place between healer, patient and community. Many other shamanic traditions parallel the perhaps seemingly extreme Wana healer-community-patient triad. Although one particular individual may be suffering from somatic or psychological complaints, the person's family and community will also be aware of and feel the changes resulting from that person's illness. The other parties will perceive and react to the disruption that the suffering and changed behaviors of the patient ...
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(Shamanism Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 Words)
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In these renewed studies, religion has formed a major part, since there has been a long standing debate amongst the various scholars, regarding the prehistoric era religious practices in this region. The debate revolves around two main theories, one of which claims that the religious practices of that time involved an amalgamation of the various religious principles of Islam, Christianity (Roheim, 1951), Judaism and Tengrianism; while the second theory believed that the prehistoric Hungarians practiced the ancient Shamanistic form of religion (Goodman, 1988).
WITCHCRAFT AND SHAMANISM. It is one of the most distinguished innate characteristics of human nature that they do not confine themselves to the perceptible natural and social phenomena existing all around them. On the contrary, they appear to be determined for exploring the realities concealed under the pile of mystery and suspense, but certainly contain imperative significance in their nature and scope.
Shamans have long been considered as hunter-gatherers and nomads (Stutley 6). However, shamans are equivalent to priests and are often consulted by their communities for advice on important tasks. Shamans engage in divination and healing, serving as intermediaries between the spirit world and the human world, and are involved in preserving the "psychomental equilibrium" of their clan (Stutley 6).
Moreover, these religious groups have rich lessons upon which a person can draw important lessons in life. The practices and teachings of people in different societies are explored through religions such as Hinduism or Taoism in books or writing that explains events or teachings of these religions.
The term Shamanism is coined from Envek language found in the Northern Asia and its introduction to the west is due to the invasion of the Khanate of Kazan around 1552 (Drury 29). After the introduction of Shamanism in the west, most of the western scholars learned more about the magico-religious activities in many parts of the world and termed them Shamanism, as the historians maintained that shamanism played a very important part in the development of the pre-Christian religious activities in Europe.
From these feelings of insecurity developed the need for such a system that could heal diseases and bring a sense of well being for the community in the form of successful hunting, good rain, weather control and fertility of land. In order to activate that system a Guru was needed who could serve as the connective link between the lesser mortals and the Divine.
They involve accounts of healings, spiritual journeys, special characteristics, foibles and shamanic careers. Narrative memories of exceptional shamanic practitioners may even outlive their subject and persist beyond the practice of shamanism in that particular community.
In these renewed studies, religion has formed a major part, since there has been a long standing debate amongst the various scholars, regarding the prehistoric era religious practices in this region. The debate revolves around two main theories, one of which claims