Finally, a comparison of the Packman et al study shall be made with two other research articles that have investigated the psychology of personality in regards to ethnic groups.
Packman et al (2005) undertook their research in light of the lack of literature investigating personality difference between ethnic groups in New Zealand, especially in regards to employment selection procedures. They stipulate that empirical study of personality traits has been ignored as compared to cognitive differences between ethnicities. It is of concern to Packman et al that personality assessment data pertaining to ethnic differences has been ignored because:
A personality assessment is considered to produce an adverse impact when the individuals of a specific demographic group are less likely to be selected for employment than individuals of other demographic groups (Cook, 1998 as cited in Packman et al., 2005 p. ).
Further, Packman et al. state that personality differences can add to findings of cognitive differences and so provide more depth of information of potential employee's suitability for job performance.
The article of Packman et al. had several main points. ...
At present, theories, models and assessment procedures of personality tend to be ethnocentric, in that they are based on the English language and oriented for a Western culture. Hence, there may be a lack in the ability to generalise personality assessment across ethnic groups.
A dominant theory of personality within psychology is the Five Factor Model (FFM), commonly referred to as "The Big Five". The five factors are Neuroticism, Extraversion, and Openness to Experience, Agreeableness, and Conscientiousness. The two global personality traits of Conscientiousness and Neuroticism have been consistently identified as strong predictor of occupational performance (i.e., a high score on the Conscientiousness trait and a corresponding low score on the Neuroticism trait). Hence, significant ethnic differences on these two traits may increase the likelihood of adverse impact during the employment selection process.
Cross-culturally, analyses of descriptions of personality in languages other than English have identified five factors similar to that of the FFM. However, cross-cultural factors rarely correspond to the original English five factors, and this is likely due to socio-environmental influences during lifespan development, and subsequent differences in language semantics.
So that even though a five-factor personality structure can be replicated across ethnic groups, it does not support or negate that various personality traits are equivalent across cultures. Bearing this in mine, research has found that there are significant differences across ethnic groups on personality traits. Packman et al. hypothesised that significant differences would be found across ethnic groups of New