Diagnosis is therefore rather subjective and obtaining epidemiological data is cumbersome. Co-morbidities are often present and these make diagnosis even more difficult (Rowland, Lesesne et al. 2002). Despite these limitations, there are valid data that suggest that ADHD seems to have a higher rate of occurrence in white children than in black children in the USA (1.7% to 4.4% in 1997) according to treatment records obtained by physicians. (Olfson, Gameroff et al. 2003). Also, the national epidemiological survey in UK showed a lower prevalence of ADHD in black children than in white children (0.4% to 1.6%) (Meltzer, Gatward et al. 2000). There is the postulation that cases of ADHD in black children could possibly have been under-diagnosed in these societies simply because black families possibly lack access to health facilities due to poorer economic status. This argument may not be valid considering that even higher access to facilities by black families have not resulted in increased diagnosis of cases of ADHD in them. Moreover, the U.K epidemiological survey cuts across racial and socioeconomic barriers. ...
The ADHD Help-Seeking model is a basis of understanding factors that are predictive of service access and utilization, with a view to using such understanding to break the barrier to service utilization in ADHD treatment (Eiraldi, Mazzuca et al. 2006). The model proposes that for effective treatment, there must first be problem identification on the part of the affected, and then the decision to seek help must follow. Also, service selection and service access by the affected are integral parts of the model pathway. It is believed that through its predictive nature, the model will provide answers to various questions regarding disparities in access to healthcare by various ethnic and racial groups. (Eiraldi, Mazzuca et al. 2006). The model however needs to be made stronger by reconstructing it on factors that are less general and are more specific for affected groups, so that individual needs could be more effectively met (Eiraldi, Mazzuca et al. 2006).
Cultural influences could play a very significant role in the Teacher and Parent Ratings across cultural divides (Olfson, Gameroff et al. 2003). The prevalence rates for ADHD from 1997-2001 among African American, Hispanic and White children (6-11 years old) were obtained using a National Health Interview Survey. Information was obtained from parents about health and socio-demographic characteristics of their children. Drug therapy history was taken. Again, White children were found to have the highest rate of ADHD than any other ethnic group, though occurrence of learning disability was higher in the African American and Hispanic children. About 1% of Hispanic children were reported to have ADHD without LD, against 4% white children. Compared to white children, the percentage of