She was Madeleine Leininger who was among the first graduate to gain doctorate degree in anthropology and she thought to add new dimension to nursing by introducing culture relevant caring technique which was introduced as a concept and later mature into a specialized domain in nursing and known to be as transcultural nursing.
"A substantive area of study and practice focused on comparative cultural care (caring) values, beliefs and practices of individuals or groups of similar or different cultures. Transcultural nursling's goal is to provide culture specific and universal nursing care practices for the health and well-being of people or to help them face unfavorable human conditions, illness or death in culturally meaningful ways"
Culture and care has been associated in nursing in transcultural setting where care is provided with accordance to person's culture. Care according to Leininger is termed as a powerful and dynamic force to understand the totality of human behavior in health and sickness (p 2).
According to Leininger "Caring is also attributed to actions, attitudes and practices to assist or help others toward healing and wellbeing" (p 5)
Culture on the other hand is the "broadest, most comprehensive, holistic and universal feature of human being which comprises of the learned, shared, and transmitted values, beliefs, norms, and life ways of a particular culture that guides thinking, decisions, and actions in patterned ways and often intergenerationally" (Leininger, p 6).
Leininger thought that having no cultural knowledge was affecting the quality of nursing actions and decisions. So nursing in transcultural setting is reliant on the knowledge about the patient's culture and cultural attributes. Transcultural nurses are train to work in diverse culture and to identify unknown or misunderstood cultures factors and influencers which affect caring actions and decisions. Sharon Murphy quotes that transcultural studies comprises of care symbol, expressions and meanings and their research is basically studying cultural care and health concern. Leininger also presented a theory called as "The Culture Care Theory". This theory presented the interdependency between culture and care and emphasized that culture relevant care helps to improve the helping technique use to facilitate patient in the course of their recovery.
Some major construct of Leininger's theory are firstly the interdependency between culture and care, secondly the theories and models are unknown blurred truth and expressions in a culture and are pictorial diagram showing some concept but lack the relationship among them respectively. Thirdly the theory is open to discovery of unknown ideas previously unknown or indistinctive related to cultural care experience of human health and welfare. Fourthly the theory encourages ascertaining various aspect of culture and care in naturalistic manner in similar or different environmental context. Fifth is a new technique of discovery such cultural values and expressions which is Ethnonursing method and it is define by Leininger as "an