135). To be understandable, the company has to distinguish between basic earnings per share and diluted earnings per share. Basic earnings per share should be calculated by dividing the net profit or loss for the period attributable to ordinary shareholders, by the weighted average number of ordinary shares outstanding during the period. For the purpose of calculating diluted earnings per share, the net profit attributable to ordinary shareholders and the weighted average number of shares outstanding should be adjusted of the effects of all dilutive potential ordinary shares. If the number of ordinary or potential ordinary shares increases as a result of capitalisation, bonus issue, share split or other reasons, the calculation of earnings per share and diluted earnings per share should be re-calculated retrospectively (Tiffin 2004, p. 137).
Materiality means that insignificant amounts should be ignored. ...
To do so, it should be able to (a) help them assess past, present, or future events and to (b) confirm or amend past assessments they have made (IASB framework n.d.). Disclosure of relevant information is closely related to the concept of materiality - what is material is likely to be relevant. Relevant information also includes changes in number of shares in issue during the year and the dilution of earnings per share caused by the conversion of potential ordinary shares to ordinary shares (Tiffin 2004, p. 138).
Reliability is influenced by the use of estimates and by uncertainties in the recognition and measurement of items. These uncertainties are dealt with by disclosure and by practicing prudence in preparing financial statements (IASB framework n.d.). An enterprise should disclose (a) the amounts used as the numerators for any earnings per share figures and a reconciliation of the amounts to the reported net profit or loss for the period and (b) the weighted average numbers of ordinary shares used as the denominator of any earnings per share figure. A reconciliation among the differing numbers of ordinary shares should be given where appropriate. Basic and diluted earnings per share should be presented, with equal prominence, on the face of the income statement. If an enterprise discloses additional earnings per share figures, example excluding a one off, exceptional cost, then the calculations should be as for basic or diluted earnings per share figures. All earnings per share figures should be disclosed with equal prominence (Tiffin 2004, p. 137).
Substance over form means that the underlying business position matters rather than the legal form. For example, equipment may be leased over 5 years-60 monthly installments being paid;