While formal assessment offers accountability in an education system that calls for measured results, informal assessment is a method that can bring about improvement since it gives a student the ability to evaluate self and to see individually how further learning can lead to success.
The two major types of formal assessment are 1) norm-referenced tests and 2) criterion-referenced tests. Both depend on a particular standard, but norm is based on a comparison with other students taking the same test, and criterion-referenced tests measure student ability within a course of study. The student's performance is compared to an established level of achievement for each task or unit of the curriculum (Rothenbacher & Leconte, 1990). The broad definition of curriculum as it relates to this paper is "all the learning planned and guided by the school, whether in groups or individually inside or outside the school" (Kelly, 1983).
This type of assessment depends on standardized tests, which are administered annually by school districts and provide a ready source of data. These tests are administered across a large number of students for the purpose of comparing individual performance to the rest of the group. Also, because test publishers provide information about the tests' reliability and validity, the results are generally accepted by educators and the community. In addition, in a structured classroom setting, students have immediate access to assistance and might enjoy the social environment a formal classroom provides.
A.2 Criterion-referenced Assessment
This method offers a quick analysis that measures students against a set objective or criterion. It also eliminates competition and because the student is not measured by how his or her peers are doing, self-evaluation can bring about a higher level of self-esteem. Based on standardized testing, a result can be determined by a standardized checklist or rubrics, which offers validity within the system. Criterion-referenced assessment might be categorized as either formal or informal.
Disadvantages of Formal Assessment Techniques
B.1 Norm-referenced Assessment
The test results, because they are compared to the results of other students, don't always determine the ability of the individual student. A standardized test is discriminatory because the curve favors high scorers, and lower-scoring students are automatically placed at the bottom. Therefore the actual ability of the test taker is not measured. Standardized tests, especially norm-referenced tests, are the same across all student levels and geographical areas and therefore set up an unrealistic result with the assumption that all students are the same.
B.2 Criterion-referenced Assessment
Although this system offers more areas of evaluation for individual students, the end result is a standard measurement. Educators sometimes base their evaluation of a student's ability on the overall results instead of looking at an individual's response to different units within the curriculum. A set standard, no matter how informal it may seem, is still structured and the
Two basic assessment techniques for evaluating student progress are commonly in use. The most established technique is formal assessment with structured testing conducted for a specific purpose and involving the use of commercially-developed and standardized instruments (Rothenbacher & Leconte, 1990)…
The paper, Assessment & Special Education, describes my aspiration to become a special education teacher and my preferred area of specialization. The paper discusses some of my strengths and weaknesses in this domain and my experience as a special education evaluator. Assessing students with learning disabilities can be a challenge.
Formative assessment is one of the methods of evaluation. It is a method of evaluation that is conducted during the learning program. It involves a number of informal and formal procedures of assessment that are used by teachers in the process of learning.
Informal assessments (also referred to as alternative or authentic assessments) permit educators to track the unending progress of their learners often and regularly (Colorado, 2007). While regular tests measure learners at a specific point of the year, regular assessments offer constant views of where learners are all through the academic year.
They can exploit the grey areas and indulge betterment in teaching processes. They can add innovations in teaching system so that student can get better attainment. Usually it is comprised of qualitative feedback of performance achieved and what was anticipated in the beginning.
This means that lecturers do not necessarily provide give the answers to the students; but actually lead the students in the right direction in the expectation that they will discover the answers. In the conventional face-to-face mode of education as well as the increasingly popular online or hybrid educational setting, critical thinking is the only way through which students can positively approach the subjects in their studies.
Problems like these need to be addressed by the parents, teachers, and students at each school, under the leadership of the principal, using data relevant to that school. "Because of individual academic difficulties, some students can land on the wrong side of these decisions" (Stiggins and Chappuis 2005, p.
Here Grade 5 at Junior/Primary level has been selected for writing this paper. Two units from primary Grade 5 have been designed to achieve specific goals in field of English language and Mathematics.
There are various ways to plan units. It is essential in all planned units is that the curriculum guide be consulted at all stages of the planning process.
In today's educational institutional systems especially in open and distance learning institutions it is a necessity to have in place an agglomeration of skills and competencies in order to assail the competitive milieu which the twenty-first century higher education has inextricably entered.