Intellectuals and politicians also voiced out sentiments against the monopolization of political power by a single party. In response to these issues, the president permitted greater freedom for the expression of political opposition. Some members of the RPP took advantage of this and formed the new organization, the Democratic Party.
For next four years, the Democrats frequently challenged government policy and were able to attract support by proficiently utilizing the growing popular hostility with the interference of the state in peoples' lives. The state eventually underwent a peaceful transition to a multiparty. The government had undertook agricultural reforms and to improve the standard of living of the peasants. They brought in huge quantities of expensive agricultural machinery, built dams and irrigation canals and constructed a national network of highways that in general helped communication as well as unlock previously remote regions to commercial agriculture. By mid-1950s the economy began to decline and agriculture was devastated by series of droughts. In addition, they faced a problem of spending without planning and importing consumer products and expensive machinery without funds to pay for them. It created annual budget deficits that in turn amounting national debt. The Democrats faced public criticism. Eventually, they censor the press, imprison journalists, and shut down offending newspapers which caused violent protest. The government called upon the army to disrupt Republican Party campaign rallies to maintain law and order. However, they didn't want to be turned into a tool of political repression against the state's principle and in time, the intervened and ended the first Turkish republic.
Turkey underwent social, economic, and demographic change. There was a rapid urbanization caused by the migration of villagers to cities in search of better economic opportunities. Social and economic transformation, for the most part with the transition from an agricultural to a mixed economy put strain to Turkey's two-party political system, the Republican and Justice. When new governments came to power, the industrialists and peasants, who prospered in the first republic, did not want to lose their status. They formed political parties to represent their particular interests in the national assembly. On the other hand, the industrial workers and university students, Marxists and Muslim revivalists, believed their needs were being ignored. They formed their own organizations and parties through which they hoped to gain a share of political power.
The process of institutionalizing interest groups led to a propagation of political parties. Various smaller organizations attracted enough voters to prevent either Justice or the Republicans ahead with absolute majority. The excessive favors granted to the minorities causes social and political disorder and paralyze the legislative process. There was a wave of social unrest marked by street demonstrations,