During winter, Helsinki shows the lowest temperature, in summer, Toulouse has the highest (refer to Figure 1).
Figure 2 shows that precipitation anomalies in the aforementioned stations do not have a significant difference to precipitation anomalies in general as it does with temperature anomalies. As shown by time series analysis, the highest average precipitation occurs from August to September, while the lowest average precipitation happens from January to February.
Recent developments on climate variability primarily deals with the winter climate, as precipitation appears to be a crucial factor to it. It is necessary to consider patterns in major convective occurrences affecting the creation of variations in precipitation to understand how this influences the various time-scales in a certain region.
In Figure 3, a correlation coefficient (R) of 0.672 is determined for the average precipitation and temperature anomalies. The linear curve has a slope of 1.43 + 0.49, and the uncertainties fit the coefficients within a 95% confidence rate. It can therefore be concluded that anomalies in terms of temperature and precipitation for the stations mentioned earlier are correlated.
Figure 3. ...