Ten years ago a disturbing case broke out in public via the televised trial court of a shaken-baby case involving a British nanny named Louise Woodward of the death of Matthew Eappen in 1997. The case brought public awareness about this complex known as Shaken Baby Syndrome or SBS (Levenson, 2005).
Accordingly, the possible amount or degree of the damage to the brain it could acquire depends upon the forces and the duration of the shaking or related violent causes.
Research shows that 20% of incidences are fatal after a few days of the injury occurred, while the majority of the survivors are left with several related disabilities (National Center on Shaken Baby Syndrome, 2007). Most common of these disabilities include mental and developmental retardation, blindness, vegetative state, learning disorders and epilepsy (National Center on Shaken Baby Syndrome).
For example, Christian Joseph Dubisky, a victim of Shaken Baby Syndrome, acquired the disease when he was just four months old when he was shook by his father, but survived for few years with such inconvenience, and died in the young age of seven. Diagnosis upon Dubisky included damaged cognitive area, retinal detachment, intermittent gag reflex, inability to eat, osteoporosis, thyroid disorder, and epilepsy (Christian's Shaken Baby, 2007).
To Dr. John Lancon of National Center on Shaken Baby Syndrome (NCSBS, 2001), SBS is the constellation of intentional intracranial and ocular hemorrhages occurring in infants and young children. Some quarters believe these are what caused Christian Dubisky's death, although it is said not all the time will the case include hematoma and brain hemorrhage that are the main cause of possible death of the victims (NCSBS, 2001).
Description. Anatomical attributes contribute the susceptibility of an infant for brain damage from SBS. Accordingly, infants with bigger heads, weaker neck and shoulder are prone to the syndrome (Patel & Moorjani, 2005). The violent shaking or any act of cerebral movement disturbance can cause blood vessels inside the brain and behind the eyes to tear and bleed (HealthLink Alberta, 2006).
The syndrome was first described in the medical literature in 1972 where it was reported that 50,000 children in the United States are forcefully shaken by their incapable caretakers every year (Thivierge, 2006). The report said some 60% of this population were boys, because of being hyper in crying, and victims aged from six to eight months old.
Statistics reported that most of the responsible culprits of the cause of the syndrome are men than women by shaking a child. Mostly women who committed such violence are caretakers or any distant relative of the victims. The common reason for such act is seen as being impatient to the inconsolable cry of the infant which is common to babies, and also an action of abuse as a sign of psychological disturbance of the suspect (Thivierge, 2006).
Causes. Shaken Baby Syndrome or SBS is usually caused by non-accidental trauma or intentional child abuse. It is commonly caused by anger or frustration on the part of the caregiver as a response to the baby's persistent crying (PennState Children's Hospital, 2007).
Infants' or babies' heads are more fragile compared to those of adults; their brains are underdeveloped, and neck and muscles are weak, and these are supposed to be supported. The younger the child, the more he is likely to develop SBS, but victims can reach up to the age of five years. It is said that even a few seconds of violent shaking may cause an infant lasting brain damage or even die (HealthLink Alberta, 2006).
Van Vhoorees (2006) claimed that shaken baby syndrome or SBS does not easily conclude from gentle bouncing, ...
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“Shaken Baby Syndrome Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 Words”, n.d. https://studentshare.net/miscellaneous/308440-shaken-baby-syndrome-essay.
In addition some have mental retardation. Down’s syndrome (DS) patients suffer from cognitive deficits; they are also prone to Alzheimer’s disease at an early age (Down’s syndrome, NIH). The onset of Alzheimer’s disease is usually at around 65 years of age in normal people but DS patients could acquire it at an earlier age.
Intellectual disabilities may be caused by a plethora of reasons and etiological factors. These etiological factors include head injury, fetal alcohol syndrome and genetic causes for instance Down syndrome. Mostly the intellectual disability will be caused by any other underlying disease or disability.
Furthermore, it could be caused by throwing or dropping a child as well as inflicting direct blows to the baby’s head. The baby victims are normally aged between 3 and 8 months and at times evidenced in 5 year old children. Evidently, at least 60% of reported infant victims are male as well as children from families that are living below the poverty index.
Often Down syndrome is identified at birth as it is associated with some impairment of cognitive ability and physical growth as well as facial appearance.
Common men have 23 pairs of chromosomes but a child with Down syndrome as mentioned earlier has an extra chromosome (47 instead of 46) or one chromosome has an extra part.
Jones and David W. Smith according to Kesmodel, U., et al. (February 15, 2002 p.310). However FAS does not affect all children born of mothers who take alcohol. FAS results when a mother's blood enters into the fetus within the uterus. This in turn affects fetal growth and development.
The long-term consequences of SBS can include permanent learning disabilities, physical disabilities, partial or total blindness, hearing impairment, speech disabilities, cognitive disabilities, cerebral palsy, seizures, behavioral disorders and death (Brain Injury Association of America, N.D.).
In her 2005 book titled, Post Traumatic Slave Syndrome, renowned author Dr. Joy DeGruy discusses PTSS, which consists of behavior patterns including racist socialization, ever present anger and vacant esteem. According to DeGruy,
The effects of slavery are still rife. Similarly, Dr. Joy had carried research to establish the effects of the slavery to generations of the Black American society. According to Dr. Gruy, the slavery era had severely affected
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