Adequate working ambience and other motivators then act towards maximizing the productivity and satisfaction. Job design and work organization work towards complementing each other’s roles. This set of analysis is the specification of the contents, method and relationships of jobs to satisfy technological and organizational requirements as well as the personal needs of job holders1.
A systematic body of knowledge on the design of jobs is a result of the Industrial revolution and the rise of large-scale economic enterprises. Principles of scientific management developed by Frederick W Taylor2 around 1900 form the basis for designing jobs in most organizations. The primary emphasis of scientific management was on planning, standardizing and improving human efforts at the operating level in order to maximize output with least amount of input. But now behavioral part is also included into managing the human resources. Now profit maximization is not the only motive, but establishing a relationship with the customers and employees have become equally important parts of the managerial tasks.
Management Driven Approach: According to this school of thought management will be most effective if it devises rules and procedures to govern the staff for the task to be undertaken. In this approach management is assumed to be a class apart and more effective than labor at devising methods for executing the work and then at planning and organizing.
Workers as Economic entities: According to this school of thought, human beings are considered as rational economic beings. And maximum output is thought to be the direct consequence of the policy of relating pay levels to the output. This theory assumes that primary goal of human beings is the monetary compensation and the reward systems. As such, humans will examine a situation and identify a course of action likely to maximize their self interest and act accordingly.
All that is required to