One of the most consistent findings within this vast research literature is the variability in well-being that people exhibit when they experience stressful life events. Constructs like vulnerability and resiliency reflect attempts to identify social, situational, and individual difference variables that either increase or decrease the likelihood that people will exhibit negative reactions to stressful events (Block & Block, 39–101, 2000; Compas, 393–403, 2000; Garmezy, 196–269, 2003; Kessler & McLeod, 620–631, 2003; Rutter, 389–395, 2000).
Research on vulnerability and resiliency factors was stimulated in part by low and inconsistent relations between life events and outcome measures. Although statistically significant relations between negative life events and self-report measures of physical and psychological well-being have frequently been reported, seldom has more than 10–15% of the outcome variance been accounted for in studies using prospective designs. When objective outcome measures of physical well-being have been used, thereby eliminating the potential role of self-report biases, the amount of variance accounted for has shrunk to 1–5% (Rabkin & Streuning 389–395, 2004; Schroeder & Costa 389–395, 2003). Faced with a pattern of weak and inconsistent results, researchers have sought to identify psychosocial moderator variables that might affect the nature and magnitude of relations between life stress and well-being. Many studies have demonstrated that taking into account factors such as social support and certain personality variables results in stronger relations between life stress and both psychological and medical outcome measures (e.g., Barrera 389–395, 2002; Sarason, Sarason, Potter, & Antoni 389–395, 2003; Smith, Johnson, & Sarason, 188-235, 2003; Stone, Helder, & Schneider 389–395, 2002; Thoits ...
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“Sport and Exercise Psychology 2 Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2500 Words”, n.d. https://studentshare.net/miscellaneous/323745-sport-and-exercise-psychology-2.
Previously the focus lay with physical rehabilitation to achieve pre-injury performance levels. However, of late there has been a growing trend to include psychosocial factors as well as psychological factors in athlete injury rehabilitation. The conglomeration of a number of factors in athlete rehabilitation after injury means that the resulting models are complex.
Among these interventions is biofeedback, relaxation, imagery, self-talk, and goal-setting. This study focuses on the use of biofeedback to improve one’s performance in sports and exercises. Due to the importance of sports and exercises in the modern society, it has become necessary that athletes and other sportsmen and women embark on numerous interventions such as goal-setting, imagery and biofeedback, which aim at improving their performance, health and well-being (Rosen, 2008).
Bunker and Maguire, two psychologists claim that sports psychology is not just for psychologists, but can also be applied to sports and its participants. Nonetheless, it is also debatable that sports psychology can be solely for psychology, similar to the way it can be for sports scientists, managers, teachers, coaches and administrators (Carr, 2006).
This is referred to as extrinsic motivation, or better defined, as engagement in an activity “as a means to an end and not for its own sake” (Vallerand and Rousseau 2001, p.391). There are other sporting participants that engage in sporting activity to fulfil inherent ambitions, seeking enjoyment and self-satisfaction that is experienced through participation (Reiss 2002).
Physical inactivity leads to a host of chronic degenerative conditions and premature death, the promotion of a physically active lifestyle is an important public health objective.
"Sedentary lifestyle is a major underlying cause of death, disease, and disability.
My strategy of using psychological interventions to improve performance however, did not produce tangible results. The team's performance has stagnated since my intervention, and I have not been able to produce professionally satisfying results.
My conclusions are that administrative interference and personal agendas dominate the team.
If one is well-versed with a task, the presence of a peer or an audience motivates him or her to accomplish a task more efficiently. On the contrary, executing an unfamiliar or tough task would become more complicated in the presence of an audience.
The presence of other people would naturally make a person aware of his or her surrounding and take a person to an aroused state of mind (Allport, 1924).
But this school of thought has few participants today basically because more people continue to embrace the notion of exercising to keep up with healthy lifestyles. More and more gymnasiums keep sprouting up each day in our hotels, stadiums, recreational facilities, and even in our homes.
Sports psychology is a discipline in psychology that studies the psychological factors that affects the attitude and performance of sportsmen and how injury and other physical conditions associated with their professional affects their mental and
12 Pages(3000 words)Essay
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