According to Orem’s theory, in order to maintain optimal health and wellness, each person not only has need for self-care, but also has ability and responsibility to care for themselves and dependants. This theory encompasses three concepts, self care, self care deficits, and the role of nursing system in this. Self care, therefore, is the ability to perform activities and meet personal needs. These personal needs will have a goal to maintain health and wellness of physique, psyche, and spirit. Self care can, hence, be visualised as a product of person, environment, health, and above all, nursing. It again has three components universal self-care needs, developmental self-care needs, and deviation from normal health. Universal self-care consists of essential minimal activities for health and vitality. The elements known to influence the conditions of self-care are air, water, food, elimination, activity and rest, solitude and social interactions, prevention of harm, and normality promotion (Moore, J.B. and Pichler, V.H., 2000). The developmental self-care need include interventions and educations designed to help a person to return to the optimal state of health and maintain it so that the person is able to sustain health and wellbeing. The part that can be directly applicable to rehabilitative care is health deviation self-care. This consists of variations or deviations in self-care as a result of disability, illness, or injury. In this situation, nursing plays a major role in planning and implementing an individualised care to maintain health and wellness (Taylor, S.G., 1998).
This gives rise to the concept of self-care deficits since every matured individual has ability to meet self-care needs. When a person experiences inability or disability due to any limitation, may it be physical or mental, there arises a situation of deficit that demands nursing care to supplement the individual’s self-care scheme. When