When the dialectical method is used for the study of economic problems, economic phenomena are not viewed separately from each other in bits and pieces. They are seen as an integrated whole with an inner connection, and structured by a central and core mode of production (Marx et al, 17-18).
Marx considered his method of studying economics, politics and society to be scientific in nature. The basic assumption of the Marxist methodology is the concept of the dialectic, “which Marx took from Hegel” (Curtis, 3). The dialectic process has been defined as the science of general laws of motion, and development of nature, human society and thought. Marx distinctly opposes his own dialectic method of investigation and knowledge to that of Hegel; while at the same time acknowledging his debt of gratitude to Hegel who brought back dialectic thought to the modern world, urged by the French Revolution. Hegel’s dialectics were idealistic, with the core element of the Absolute Idea. Material reality was only the outward appearance of an ideal inner core. On the other hand, for Marx, the dialectic is materialist, and the ideal according to him is nothing but the material world reflected in the mind of man, and translated into forms of thought (Marx et al, 18).
Marx emulated Hegel regarding the distinction between appearance and essence, which is an inherent part of the dialectic method of investigation, and is a consistent attempt to pierce continuously further through successive layers of phenomena, “towards laws of motion which explain why these phenomena evolve in a certain direction and in certain ways” (Marx et al, 19). One of Marx’s chief merits as a revolutionary innovator in economic science, is his constantly searching for questions and their answers; where others see only ready-made answers and evidence. The final causes of all social changes and political revolutions were to be sought not in