The No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act of 2001 has paved the way for a more thorough and precise attention towards out-of-school-time (OST) activities; however, there has been a lack of proper and more exact evaluation of such programs—if, indeed, they effectively increase…
280-281). The search results were siphoned to include only the most relevant and useful to the study by using an Inclusion Criteria (p. 281). For instance, the studies have to be in English and conducted in the United States within the years 1985 to 2003 (p. 281). After the studies included in the synthesis have been finalized, the information they presented are coded according to “the student sample, the research design, statistical results, and research quality” (p. 282). After the coding, the authors used independent meta-analyses on the results pertaining to reading and mathematical educational outcomes (p. 284).
i. The results, with reading and math and fixed- and random-effects models, for the overall effect sizes were obviously greater than zero (p. 303). This shows that OST activities and programs can have constructive effects on the proficiency of at-risk students (p. 303). To be more exact, the authors found that elementary and secondary students benefit from OST programs for improved reading, while secondary students benefit more for mathemathics (p. 307). One-on-one tutoring in reading for at-risk students also have the highest positive effects on achievement (p. 308). Furthermore, it is not necessary for OST activities and programs to focus solely on academics as they also have positive effects on social achievements of students (p. 307).
i. The implications of the synthesis on the methodologies for evaluation of the effctiveness and success of OST activities and programs created by the authors include the close monitoring of said programs by the administrators in order to ensure student learning; a critical look at both published and unplublished works by future researchers on the said topic; and a call for more research and documentation of the characteristics and implementation of OST programs (pp. 307-308). The authors showed that although after school programs like remedial classes and summer schools ...
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