uding the determination of the most effective way to coordinate tasks, careful selection of employees for different positions, proper training and development of the workforce, and the introduction of economic incentives in order to motivate employees. Taylor’s scientific management theory is widely used today and underlies many management techniques from work study to standard costing.
In scientific management theory, Taylor believed that management’s objective should be to secure maximum prosperity for both employers and employees in both the short and long term. He was able to arrive at this principle by studying the causes of hostility and inefficiency in the workplace. In his investigation, Taylor believed that left to their own devices, workers toiled inefficiently, basing their work practices on custom and habit rather than on scientific principles. In addition, he attributed hostility to the belief among workers that increases in output would naturally result in unemployment and that the traditional practice created inefficient methods of work and that workers restricted their outputs in order to protect their interests. (Cascarion and Esch, p. 106) Taylor called this as workers’ engagement in “soldiering.” He outlined two types of soldiering:
Systematic soldiering, on the other hand, is the concerted restriction of output and the more problematic of the two. This attitude was rooted in management’s failure to develop appropriate authority and legitimation for standard work. (Collins 1998, p. 11)
Taylor addressed this challenge by studying each job in order to discover the best way in doing it. He was able to identify the best means of control. He developed four approaches to management designed to be able to recruit and maintain workers – whose needs and attitudes towards work are met:
Through the previous principles Taylor was able to design a set of standards in regard to control and workers’ wages in terms of scientifically