Diarrhea is commonly associated with the use of antibiotics that are capable of killing/ arresting growth of infection causing organism but in some cases this association could be related with the proliferation and colonization of opportunistic pathogen Clostridium difficile. In…
Let us write or edit the essay on your topic
"Applying your knowledge of immunology, analyse the causes of Cl.difficile. Discuss interventions for the prevention of Cl.difficile and the appropriate treatment for this infection"
with a personal 20% discount.
C. difficile is a spore forming, anaerobic bacilli, shows positive Gram reaction and is known to be associated with nosocomial diarrhea. It is an etiological representative of pseudo membranous colitis (PMC) and 15-25% of diarrhea associated with the intake of antibiotics (Bartlett, 2002).
It is known that bacteria adapt to the shifting environment and so do their response to antibiotics, making them resistant and more virulent. Severity of CDAD is also associated with similar paradigm. In severe and acute cases CDAD may cause ulceration and hemorrhage. The disease encompasses diarrhea, fever, amplified fecal leukocytes, abdominal cramping and dehydration; leading to hypoalbuminaemia, toxic megacolon, colonic perforation and PMC causing amplification in morbidity and mortality (Poutanen, 2004).
Pathogenic Clostridium difficile produces exotoxins- A and B. They have potential role in causing CDAD (Pothoulakis, 1996). Strains producing toxin either A+ B+ or A‑B+ are responsible for virulence while non-toxin producing strains are non virulent and do not cause diarrhea.
In normal individuals, enteric pathogens are prohibited from establishment due to native intestinal microflora, contributing to host’s defense mechanism. Clostridium difficile is a potent pathogen that successfully establishes infection because of its immense ability to produce toxins thereby paving the way for C. difficile colonization. Toxins generated by C. difficile are highly enterotoxic and cytotoxic. Healthy individuals possess antibodies serum IgG and intestinal secretory IgA against toxin A, and efficiently bind to the intestinal receptors of toxin A. This is a condition where humoural response to toxin A is hampered and thus C. difficile finds way for proliferation. The action of toxin A causes disruption of epithelial cells, enhanced fluid emission, damage of mucosa, irritation and tenderness due to enhanced permeability of tight junctions causing diarrhea or PMC ...
Cite this document
(“Applying your knowledge of immunology, analyse the causes of Essay”, n.d.)
Retrieved from https://studentshare.net/miscellaneous/381202-applying-your-knowledge-of-immunology-analyse-the-causes-of-cldifficile-discuss-interventions-for-the-prevention-of-cldifficile-and-the-appropriate-treatment-for-this-infection
(Applying Your Knowledge of Immunology, Analyse the Causes of Essay)
“Applying Your Knowledge of Immunology, Analyse the Causes of Essay”, n.d. https://studentshare.net/miscellaneous/381202-applying-your-knowledge-of-immunology-analyse-the-causes-of-cldifficile-discuss-interventions-for-the-prevention-of-cldifficile-and-the-appropriate-treatment-for-this-infection.
The three sites that are utilized for central venous catheter insertion are internal jugular, subclavian and femoral.Although, like any other medical intervention,these catheters have their own share of complications,it is the risk of infection,which has the most serious clinical and economic repercussions for the patient,physician and health care facility
This is evidenced by the fact that approximately 48% of patients in intensive care unit in hospitals have central venous catheters. Central venous catheters normally disrupt skin integrity thereby allowing pathogens to enter, and the infection may spread to the bloodstream (bacteremia) ensuing organ dysfunction and hemodynamic changes.
In fact medical science in general and the nursing profession in particular have given much attention in recent years to this oft neglected area of clinical practice. This paper will discuss not only the nature and causes of infections, but also the efforts for infection prevention and control with special reference to defence healthcare.
The study has initially identified risk factors: both systemic and local, which increases preponderance for the development of foot ulcers. Specifically, seven variables were noted to be directly associated with the development of foot ulcers, to wit: neuropathy, callus, deformity, elevated peak pressure, vascular disease, ill-fitting footwear.
The author states that there are many attributions to infection or diseases, for example, different microorganisms such as bacteria, fungi, viruses, and prions. These microorganisms result in a wide variety of infections. Such infections include urinary tract, wounds, respiratory, blood, bone and skin infections.
The term substance abuse can be defined as an excessive use of addictive substances.Due to its misuse, the functioning of ones body and mind can alter resulting in adverse social consequences, such as failure to meet work, family, or school obligations, interpersonal conflicts, or legal problems.This term mainly refers to overeating, cigarette smoking, alcohol abuse, or drug abuse.Alcohol is one of the most frequently abused substances.
This paper will discuss what can be done to prevent wound infection within the hospital setting.
There is no substitute for hand care. It has been known for many years that most infections are carried from one room to another on healthcare workers hands and yet it continues to happen.
However, the more imminent threat lies in the fact that these two organisms are becoming increasingly difficult to treat with available medication which has left hospitals with prevention as their main cure for reducing hospital acquired infections. Hospital acquired infections can result from a number of factors, however, MRSA and Clostridium difficile have been cited as the major causes in most cases and this has prompted the author to investigate the reasons behind the rise of MRSA and Clostridium difficile as the major causes of hospital acquired infections.
The author states that in the United Kingdom, sexually transmitted infections are a public health concern especially among young sexually active persons particularly those aged between 15 and 25 years. According to Public Health England (2015), there were 440,000 diagnoses of sexually transmitted infections in England.
12 Pages(3000 words)Essay
GOT A TRICKY QUESTION? RECEIVE AN ANSWER FROM STUDENTS LIKE YOU!
Let us find you another Essay on topic Applying your knowledge of immunology, analyse the causes of Cl.difficile. Discuss interventions for the prevention of Cl.difficile and the appropriate treatment for this infection for FREE!