Systematic study of child development in the Euro-North American context began with psychological theories of pioneers in the field like Freud, Piaget, Vygotsky, Bowlby, Erikson, Watson, and, hundreds of researchers and practitioners applying, revising, and extending their…
Genetic and environmental factors interact with varying degrees of plasticity to effect developmental change. To very briefly outline the stages, or milestones of a child’s growth from birth onwards, research has identified, physical, motor, cognitive. socio-emotional, language acquisition variables, and their mechanisms, along with speed and pattern of development in terms of both population and individual differences. In spite of minor variations due to cultural and environmental factors, there is wide agreement as to what could be seen as ‘gifted’ or super-normal development and, at the other end, sub-normal or less than optimal development and functioning of children. Such differences are likely to persist into adulthood. However, the term atypical development is used more in the context of sub-normal rather than super-normal populations.
More recent research into the lower end of the scale in child development, which is a minority, and considered atypical under normal conditions, has concentrated on what have been identified as vulnerability and resilience factors. The motivation has been to identify, intervene, and actively improve the chances of accomplishment of a satisfactory life trajectory for those children identified as being in danger of failing to reach societal norms of everyday life. To emphasise the global spread of child development research and application, studies from the USA, Australia and South Africa within the last decade are cited in this essay; (Masten & Gewirtz (2006), Mutimer, Reece, and Matthews (2007), Theron (2006).
Vulnerability in children is described as risk factors, both individual and environmental hazards, which tend to result in negative developmental outcomes. Among individual characteristics are, intrauterine growth retardation, low birth weight, in-utero experience of maternal drug use, physical disability, and a variety of genetic defects. Among the immediate environmental hazards are family ...
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In the video “A Conversation with Temple Grandin” (cited in www.npr.org, 2006), the interview with Temple Grandin who suffers from autism, helped me understand that it is definitely not feasible living with this biological problem as Grandin narrates that she got kicked out of her high school because apparently she appeared bored of studies.
According to the scenario, the student spends a lot of time daydreaming instead of paying attention. This puts the student at-risk of losing valuable education time. This behavior prevents the student from receiving a solid education; this also insures that the student may be left behind if this is not addressed.
As a result, carers have the responsibility of ensuring that these people manage to survive and live comfortable lives. However, statistics shows that the carers face multiple problems when dealing with such people. For instance, older carers may experience increased financial burdens that may even cause poverty.
The general opinion is that those kids are just less lucky than their healthy coevals, being valuable citizens, no worse and no better than the other people, thus the society accepts the responsibility of taking care of these boys and girls.
Whereas the official position is that atypical children and adults are no worse than the healthy ones, individuals and groups of people exist who discriminate against those, who have severe health problems, and especially against kids and grown-ups who have their mental sphere damaged.
As the use of online discussion tools within university courses continues to grow, the idea of combining the powerful learning possibilities of role play with the potential of the online environment is receiving attention. The concept of asynchronous, anonymous role simulation as a learning activity is of great interest to academics and trainers (Freeman & Capper, 1999, pp.95-116).
It is at 3-7 years of life that their activities are organised as play as a sensory experience. Want and Harris (2002) state that young children learn only what actions to perform via observation and they simply imitate or mimic. Children do not perform observed actions because these are effective (emulation).
Currently there is a need in clarifications of the core role of information and communication technologies (Mansell, 1998; James, 2004).
In case information field is equally distributed in developed and
This includes ADD, ADHD, as well as Conduct Disorders since they impact the physical capability of a child to concentrate their attention on the given task while maintaining their attention span. These
The primary objective of reengineering is to increase the quality of healthcare at the lowest cost. Nurse leaders play a vital role in system re-engineering since they are among the decision makers in a health institution.
Nurse leaders are
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