It is a process of transformation that is affected by several changing factors at the global level. The main factors that promote globalisation are technology, economy and culture. Politics has been widely influenced by globalisation; and the political institutions, such as the nation – state have been significantly transformed, on account of globalisation (Shaw 1999: iii).
There are a number of concepts involved in the globalisation process, which vary according to the circumstances. It has been argued that globalisation is a symbol of capitalism that is controlled by the market forces. Globalisation legalises transnational capitalism, and establishes international governmental institutions to supervise the world. As such, it brings about global domination, thereby depriving sovereign nations of their power of self – determination (Kellner).
Culture can be defined as a combination of diverse features, such as spirituality, materialism, intellectual pursuits and emotions in a society. It incorporates art, literature, lifestyles, social forms of living, value systems, traditions, and belief in a social group or society. Culture can also be construed as communication. Civilisation developed on the basis of the cultural features of society. In the past, the development of dominant societies in a specific region established unique cultural identities for that region. The development of culture resulted in civilisation (Effects on Globalization in Culture Differentiation 2009).
In the aftermath of globalisation, cultural identity, in some societies that depict cultural diversity, will emerge stronger. The determining factors, in relation to cultural identity will change, after globalisation. Consequently, diversities in culture will coexist with globalisation. However, the criteria that underlie culture differentiation will undergo transformation, due to globalisation (Effects on Globalization in Culture Differentiation 2009).