It is a process of transformation that is affected by several changing factors at the global level. The main factors that promote globalisation are technology, economy and culture. Politics has been widely influenced by globalisation; and the political institutions, such as the nation – state have been significantly transformed, on account of globalisation (Shaw 1999: iii).
There are a number of concepts involved in the globalisation process, which vary according to the circumstances. It has been argued that globalisation is a symbol of capitalism that is controlled by the market forces. Globalisation legalises transnational capitalism, and establishes international governmental institutions to supervise the world. As such, it brings about global domination, thereby depriving sovereign nations of their power of self – determination (Kellner).
Culture can be defined as a combination of diverse features, such as spirituality, materialism, intellectual pursuits and emotions in a society. It incorporates art, literature, lifestyles, social forms of living, value systems, traditions, and belief in a social group or society. Culture can also be construed as communication. Civilisation developed on the basis of the cultural features of society. In the past, the development of dominant societies in a specific region established unique cultural identities for that region. The development of culture resulted in civilisation (Effects on Globalization in Culture Differentiation 2009).
In the aftermath of globalisation, cultural identity, in some societies that depict cultural diversity, will emerge stronger. The determining factors, in relation to cultural identity will change, after globalisation. Consequently, diversities in culture will coexist with globalisation. However, the criteria that underlie culture differentiation will undergo transformation, due to globalisation (Effects on Globalization in Culture Differentiation 2009).
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Edward Tylor in 1871 defined culture as "that complex whole which includes knowledge, belief, art, law, morals, custom, and any other capabilities acquired by man as a member of society" (Riley 2007). In other words it revolves around all the customs and knowledge that a society possesses. Some even go to the extent of saying that culture forms a society. Culture in one society differs from the other depending upon the generation which left the culture behind.
According to White, the evolution of culture was a science that grew and progressed much later than other sciences such as astronomy. White explains that during the first half of the century the evolutionary theory of culture had not been explored and developed in America and White was responsible for setting the stage for the theory of evolution of culture based on the use of energy in relation to technology.
Culture throughout history has dictated beliefs, behaviors, and other characteristics familiar to the associates of a particular community. A person’s culture includes many societal aspects such as language, customs, values, rules, and technologies. Differences in culture mean diverse cultures having various values in which they believe in.
The developments of new technology, cross-border tourism, and labour mobility have been the drivers of global consumer culture (Merz, He & Alden, 2008). However, opinions differ on the impact of change and the extent of change. While globalisation and cultural practices have a reciprocal relationship (Tomlinson, 1999) opinions differ on the extent to which cultural homogenization has taken place.
This is to say, the number of societal issues such as its development and the manner in which people now interact with one another as a result (Robertson, 2007). A good example of this is the relationship that can be determined between the globalization of consumer culture and how it engenders a cosmopolitan culture as a result (Jones, 2006).
Culture generally refers to a set pattern of an individual's life that portray the human activity and symbolic structures that give such activities importance and significance.
Culture can be manifested into many different forms such as sports, lifestyle, paintings etc.
Longhurst carefully defined and selected the ways in which the concepts of Culture, Power, Globalisation, as well as Inequality are used in the extract. Culture is a consequence as well as a shaper of artistic, economic, educational, ethnic, linguistic, moral,
While globalisation and cultural practices have a reciprocal relationship (Tomlinson, 1999) opinions differ on the extent to which cultural homogenization has taken place. Ted Levitt in his article, “The Globalisation of Markets” states that the
Safety culture is more specific and defined in diverse ways, but it may be termed to as the manifestation of the behaviour of people in an organization in relation to safety. Behaviour here includes the values, perceptions, attitudes and beliefs of staffs regarding protection