The first is to present some cultural profiling between two countries, using a range of academic models which should highlight any significant differences that are likely to occur in terms of management behaviour. Secondly, aim to critically evaluate the key communication and negotiation differences that managers should be aware of when dealing with the negotiators when they arrive.
Negotiation is generally considered as a means of resolving conflict. It is a process in which problems are solved between two or more parties that attempt to settle some disagreement in a manner that is agreeable to both (Fisher, Ury & Patton 1991, pp. 1-3). Although the main principles of negotiation are easily understood, it can be extremely difficult when placed into practice. Contention between what is right or wrong; opposing views when it comes to what is fair and just; forms of communication and information exchange as well as the procedures carried out for negotiations are only a handful of the challenges that negotiators often encounter (Susskind, McKearnan & Thomas-Larner 1999, pp. 2-57). Furthermore, the process of negotiation is made difficult when different parties are negotiating across conflicting cultures (Gelfand & Brett 2004, pp. 45-47). Culture is one of the most powerful factors that determine and influence people’s way of thinking as well as behaviour and communication (Salacuse 1993, pp. 199-208). Therefore, culture has a significant effect on the people’s means of negotiation.
This essay specifically examines the impact of culture on the process of negotiation. First, it provides cultural profiling between India and Japan, and identifies differences between their culture and management behaviour. Important factors that are involved in cross cultural negotiation such as communication and negotiation differences are also tackled. In addition, the four dimensions of culture identified by Hofstede (1997, pp. 28-37) have been included,