rship, which responds to globalization, and (3) spiritual, holistic and transcendental leadership, which revive universal spiritual ideas to provide holistic and integrated models.
Renowned personalities throughout history have provided role models of leadership, and it is through studying their leadership characteristics that many of the features of leadership models are derived. These include social and political leaders, business leaders, and also spiritual leaders such as prophets and saints. For example, the Bhagvad Gita extols the leadership of Krishna, the Buddha’s leadership demonstrated true compassion, and the Holy Quran (surah 18: 83-98) presents an exemplary model of leadership of Dhul-Qarnayn, believed by some to be either Alexander or Cyrus the Great. Confucius’ ideas also have profound lessons for modern leadership theory. Social learning theory then explains how people learn from the examples of others.
In the modern era, Burns’ conceptualization of leadership as either transactional or transformational set a new paradigm in leadership theory a few decades ago. Transactional leaders are described as leading for the sake of simple social exchanges, and transactional leadership models are grounded in self-interest and designed to uphold the status quo. On the other hand, transformational leaders “stimulate and inspire followers to both achieve extraordinary outcomes and, in the process, develop their own leadership capacity” (Bass & Riggio, 2006, p. 3). The following are the components of transformational leadership:
Another stronger form of leadership, namely charismatic leadership, is more socialized and constructed to serve collective interests. In the highly personalized form however, it can lead to dominating and authoritarian behavior and self-aggrandizement (Bass & Riggio, 2006, p. 13). On the other hand, more charismatic styles of leadership have been found to positively correlate with “traditional, collectivist work,