Some of the reasons for this conclusion are: The Company operates in a large number of foreign countries; the currencies of these countries generally do not move in the same direction at the same time". On the other hand, many corporations with big universal networks, like IBM or Coca Cola, make wide use of derivative financial tools to hedge currency and thus increase share holder value.
Financial or corporate risks are risks which stems due to the variations in prices. These risks are insidious, and directly or indirectly control the worth of a company. Great deregulation, competition at the international level, rates of interest and foreign exchange rate instability, along with commodity price separations which appeared from the late 1960s, compounded corporate vexations. This resulted in the altered significance of financial risk management in the years that followed (Allen and Santomero, 1998).
Prior to derivatives markets were genuinely formulated, the mode of dealing with corporate gambles was few, and therefore financial risks were not within the scope of managerial control. The alternatives to which the firms resorted under such circumstances were to establish plants abroad so that the risk in currency exchange rates was minimised. Some firms adopted natural hedging by attempting to equalise the currency constitution of their assets and liabilities (Santomero, 1995).
Allen and Santomero, (1998) state that “During the 1980s and 1990s, markets for derivative instruments have developed and grown at a breathtaking pace, and many corporations have become active participants in derivatives markets. Since then, the range and quality of both exchange-traded and OTC derivatives, together with the depth of the market for such instruments, have expanded intensively.”
The growth of the derivatives market, dynamic risk management became a vital component of current corporate strategy. This is evidenced by the fact that