Motivation theories such as Maslow’s hierarchy of needs, Herzberg’s dichotomy of hygiene factors and motivating factors, McGregor’s theory ‘X’ and theory ‘Y’ people, Edgar Schein’s assumptions based approach, Tailor’s scientific management approach, Elton Mayo’s theory, Adams equity theory and Vroom’s expectancy theory have been in used for long time. These models propose circumstances under which employees will be internally motivated to do their tasks effectively according to Hackman and Oldham (1976). However practical situations in the organizational setting can be an admixture of some or all of these theories. There was a time when employees were assumed as only another input into the process of manufacturing of goods and services. According to Lindner (1998) what probably changed this notion was research, known as the Hawthorne Studies, performed by Elton Mayo in between 1924 to 1932.
Maslow (1998) used a pyramidal hierarchical structure to depict the needs of employees at the work place. According to him self-actualization occupies the top-most rung in the hierarchy of needs. Secondly self-esteem needs come as of importance. Thirdly needs of love and affection come and fourthly safety related needs are of importance to the employee. Finally at the base of the pyramid there are those physiological needs.
Individual employees who are more likely to need self-actualization benefits would display some individual characteristics. For example acceptance and realism are associated with such employees. This is due to the fact that such employees regard themselves as more realistic and accordingly adjust themselves to the work environment with a degree of ease. Secondly their problem solving behavior endears them to many higher officials outside their own work environment. Their motivation basically comes from a