This study evaluates fundamental functions and concepts of management and the challenges that global organisations face with respect to management function. Leadership as the essence of management has defined or determined the fate of many organisations, at local and global levels. However, leadership at global levels is greatly influenced by factors such as behaviour, perception, attitudes, and knowledge impacted by sociocultural aspects. An awareness of challenges to leadership through ground-breaking principles proposed by Hofstede and Trompenaars is necessary to understand how leadership can contribute to the success of global organisations.
Management has been defined in many ways by various people. Earlier, management was defined as ‘getting things done through other people’; currently, management is referred to as ‘working with and through other people to accomplish the objectives of both the organisation and its members’ (Montana & Charnov, 2000; p.2). Evolution of this concept is traced back to Frederick Taylor’s scientific management, also known as Taylorism; later refined by Henry Ford, known as Fordism. However, the foundation for management principles is said to have been laid by Henry Fayol in the form of five elements or functions of management: planning, organising, commanding, coordinating and controlling. Fayol also developed 14 management principles from these functions (see appendix 2.1). These management practices were framed to direct workers to follow specific steps that will help in achieving the larger organisational goal, driven through managers (Lucey, 2004).
The process of trans-migration of humans from one place to another for food, eventually trade and business solidified attributed to the huge monetary gains; this process further intensified with increasing needs, development of means of transportation, technology, communication; further reinforced by increasing population, demand for