Though he has no peripheral vascular disease at this time, he feels some tingling in his toes and notices that he does not always feel when he stubs them, like he used to. He realizes that his diabetes is getting a little worse but thinks he is doing pretty good and does not seem to understand what might happen next. He thinks he might have to start taking some medication this time and he is worried he might have to take insulin. He is also worried about his blood pressure as his father had a stroke about his age.
Type 2 diabetes is a disease in which there is excess sugar in the blood or hyperglycemia. This comes in association with relative insulin deficiency. Many people with Type 2 are overweight and older. However, recently with obesity becoming a major health issue all over the world, type 2 is being discovered in young adults as well as children. The metabolic abnormalities that lead to type 2 diabetes are, insulin resistance, deranged secretion of insulin by the pancreatic beta cells, and increased glucose production in the liver (Porth & Matfin, 2007).
People with type 2 diabetes can have too much insulin, normal amounts of insulin or too little insulin. The problem of insulin resistance initially stimulates the beta cells to produce more insulin but eventually the beta cells become tired and fail. This causes not only elevated postprandial blood glucose levels but also an increased level of glucose production by the liver. Often it is heard from patients that they have metabolic syndrome. Evidence shows that people with type 2 diabetes often have other issues that contribute to a syndrome (Moshang, 2005). The abnormalities that are part of this syndrome are obesity, high levels of triglycerides and low levels of high density lipoproteins, hypertension, systemic inflammation, abnormal fibrinolysis, abnormal function of the vascular endothelium, and macrovascular disease (Porth, et.al. 2007).