Evolution is a continuing process in which characters are changed and traits are acquired or lost, resulting to the development of different species (speciation). These changes are outcomes of developmental changes, which in turn reflect genome modifications (Kent and Carr 2004,…
The issue of whether a more developed species is advanced or not is subject to how one defines advancement, and is not tackled in this paper because of its subjectivity.
Related species usually share similar morphological and or anatomical characteristics. They can either be ancestor-descendant, or descendants from the same ancestor. The proximity of their relation is defined by the amount of evolutionary changes that occurred between them. For example, humans are closer to four-legged animals than to fish. Humans are closer to monkeys than they are to horses because of their opposable thumb. However, not all organisms that have a characteristic in common are closely related. Bats and birds are the only groups of vertebrates that share flight, but bats descended from a lineage of non-winged animals, and are thus more related to humans than they are to birds.
Possible relations among groups (A, B and C) can be depicted through a cladogram (Figure 1). Cladistics, the process behind making a cladogram, is usually based on morphology, but can also be made from anatomy or embryology, for example. It is a branching diagram in which the base is occupied by the closest common ancestor. It may be extant, and as such be one of the groups, but it may also be hypothetical, like in this case, and as such is left as blank. From it, a character that differentiates the groups from their closest common ancestor is placed on the branch leading to A, B, and C (tick mark). Because groups A and B are more closely related to each other than to C, the defining characteristic that made them different from C is also placed in the diagram (double tick mark). Points of bifurcation represent hypothetical ancestors. A number of cladograms can be made in relating A, B, and C to one another, but it is usually the tree with the minimum number of evolutionary changes that is preferred (Kent and Carr 2004, ...
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It is this paper’s position that the human race came about as they are now through the process of evolution. The author believes that living organisms today evolved through the process of natural selection and this has been the key to the survival of living things on earth.
Advances in genetics helped the biologists a lot in explaining the basis of variation and inheritance. Theory of evolution or the theory of natural selection influences all the aspects of modern biology. This paper briefly analyses the principles of evolution with the help of some specific traits among living things.
Structurally, both the eukaryotic and Prokaryotic cells usually bear proven distinctions. The latter has fewer organelles in its structure compared to eukaryotic, which has extra of the same contents in its structure and larger in size. Study theories claim that eukaryotic normally evolved from Prokaryotic, which yielded to the current state of the cells via endosymbiosis process (Virtual Fossil Museum).
The molecular clock hypothesis also serves as a null model, which is usable in testing both the rates of mutation and evolution in various species. Molecular clocks continue to influence significantly the development of molecular evolution theories. Following the noted progress in technologies that focus on DNA sequencing, the use of molecular clocks has also experienced a marked increase, allowing for profound effects on the appreciation of the temporal diversification of genomes and species.
This mechanism of biology on which mammals and other vertebrates are heavily reliant on, including genes of the cone opsin and their specific photopigments is conserved to a very high level. However, they way in which different mammals use color vision’s fundamental elements varies strikingly, especially in the way that they emerge and disappear in various altered forms over the evolutionary course.
The body temperature of seals is protected by their thick layer of subcutaneous blubber against their living environment's (cold sea water) temperature which is ranging from 0 to 15C. Their flippers though can not be covered with subcutaneous blubber because it will interfere with its function as paddles and fins.
he term used to refer to the process where inherited traits in a species change from generation to generation resulting in variations, which accumulate over a long period of time causing new species to emerge. According to scientists, macroevolution entails variation,
Charles Darwin’s theory of natural selection stipulates that evolutionary changes occur through production of different genotypes and differential survival of individuals with different combinations of
In nature, biological organisms have many off springs as compared to their chances of surviving. If it were goal directed then all the off springs would have equal chances of surviving so as they can live to evolve (Lenomard, Roze & Rousset, 1919).Evolution also
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