The driving force behind clinical trials should be to answer questions related to drugs and treatment techniques before they are unleashed to the society for its benefit. However, it is apparent that some of the parties who conduct these trials do so for their own benefit…
It tries to examine the ethical problems that occur with experiments and human subjects as well as whether the interests of the subject always prevail over the interest of science and society.
We can define clinical trials as experiments performed with an aim of finding out how effective and safe a particular drug or device used in medical examinations is. These trials can be performed by either individual researchers or health organizations affiliated with the government, together with hospitals or universities. There are three steps in clinical trials, all of which involve humans and hence the concern by the ethical committee as life is precious. Clinical trials involve the recruitment of several patients to be used as subjects. Normally, these subjects should not receive any payment although nowadays, some receive payment for taking part on the trials.
The experimenters divide volunteers into groups including a control group, to which they administer a placebo in place of the drug. From a clinical trial, there maybe four results. One is referred to as a positive trial result, which indicates that the novel mode of treatment will be of great benefit and is greater than the treatment that already exists. On the other hand, a clinical trial can turn out to be non-inferior, inconclusive or negative where the new treatment proves to be substandard to the current standard treatment (Robinson & Andrews, 2010).
Several arguments have been raised concerning clinical trials. Questions like if clinical trials are ethical and if the trials are beneficial to the participants or they are just things researchers impose for their own benefit have come up over the years. The most common issues involved during trials include the preparation of manuals as some do not prepare them as required and hence leads to complications during trials, registration of the trials, recruitment of the patients or subjects and issues to do with the ...
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(Clinical Trials: Ethical or Deceptive Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 Words)
“Clinical Trials: Ethical or Deceptive Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 Words”, n.d. https://studentshare.net/miscellaneous/404173-clinical-trials-ethical-or-deceptive.
Clinical trials are biomedical and health-related research studies on human beings following a pre-defined protocol. Clinical trials are categorized into two: interventional studies and observational type of studies. Interventional studies involve research subjects selected by the investigator.
The first two decades following the identification of HIV/AIDS, the global community has taken no vigorous or categorical approach in addressing the pandemic. This circumstance has resulted in a situation wherein low and middle-income countries witnessed not only the increase in the global burden of the disease, but also the increase in the number of their people afflicted with HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS, 2011).
Any error in treatment to subjects in health care research may lead to political, legal and socio-economic problems. Prior to 1950s, the medical experimentation neglected the ethical principles where as the situation improved in later years. In USA, the establishment of National Commission for the Protection of Human Subjects of Biomedical and Behavioral Research has brought significant improvement in ethical standards of health care research.
These provisions include the establishment of a UK Ethics Committee Authority; the requirements for authorisation and ethics committee opinions and provisions for the protection of adults incapable of giving informed consent and who should be able to benefit from research that can improve their condition (Statutory Instrument 2004).
There is existence of ethical guidelines for most disciplines. It is acknowledged that qualitative health research often generates ethical dilemmas, and these are not easily solved by application of codes of practice (Cormack, 2000, 23-46). Any research study involves a number of different stakeholders, potentially including the research team and the institution for which they work, the professional organizations they may represent, the participants, the sponsors, policy-makers who may use results, various groups affected by those results, and the wider public.
Ultimately various methods to determine sample size for a randomized control trial have been studied and illustrated with examples.
Internet has been the primary source of information for this report. Several journal articles were accessed from the Liverpool Metalib, few others were open access and some required registration.
This is known as clinical data management, which is an integral component of the drug development process. The conclusions derived from data analysis are the basis of for regulatory approval and subsequent
ns of the disease further reflect in the ‘inability’ of phagocytes to make ‘reactive oxygen species’ because of the lack or malfunction of NADPH complex, and thus the ‘susceptibility to infection increases’ in the affected population (Kepenekli 2014: 1). Evidence
the ethics and continue with the clinical trials which may be considered inhumane but will eventually save money and time for the trials to continue (Barrett, 2006). There are several cases that cause ethical dilemma during clinical trial and some of them will be discussed
otocol is a quality measure and that it ensures that there is consistency in results, others feel that the occasional amendment of such protocol shows the subjective nature of such protocols. However, there is a point of concession that standardizing clinical trial procedures
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