ural amalgamation and incorporation came into being, and the crime rate also got its place along with the growth of civilisation with an upward trend and increase. With the passage to time, methods of protecting the society from criminal assaults were taken into consideration. Human societies established political authorities, which introduced laws and rules for keeping the societies in perfect order on the one hand, and for protecting the people from criminal assaults and harms on the other. Hence, boundaries lines were drawn between normal and criminal behaviour. “The vast majority of the rules”, Sutherland & Cressey state, “which define certain behaviour as criminal are found in constitutions, treaties, common law, enactments by the legislators of the state and its subdivisions, and in judicial and administrative regulations.” (1970, p. 5)
Researches were conducted and theories were articulated in order to discover the real reasons and motives behind committing of crime and getting involved into perversion and deviant behaviour. Nature-nurture theories appeared for further debate and discussion on the topic of the reasons behind people’s getting involved into criminal activities and delinquent behaviour. Some of the theorists believed that innate characteristics are dominant in personality traits, which determine the future behaviour of the individuals. “Concrete behavioural traits,” Pinker submits, “reflects the underlying talents and temperaments—how proficient with language a person is, how religious, liberal or conservative—are partially heritable.” (2004, p. 5) On the other hand, another school of thought vehemently declared crime as a learned behaviour. According to this school of thought man is born with pure heart and mind, and it is social environment that spoils and detracts the individuals from the right track. Sutherland insisted on the theory that crime is absolutely a learned behaviour, and people learn and adopt criminal
Crime has aptly been viewed as a social phenomenon, which prevails in each and every culture of the globe since the known human history; consequently, the theorists take keen interest in determining and deciding the acts that are come under the fold of crime, and have discovered…
The differential association theory is tackled along the content of this study to have better understanding of why violent crimes still arises against the strong will of the society to have it fully wiped of the system.
Adventure Therapy involves the use of wilderness expeditions, camping, rafting, mountain climbing, sailing, and other similar activities as an alternative to pharmaceutical, psychotherapy, or clinical methods of psychiatry or in association with personal counseling.
The person generally spends a long time looking at her own body and doing activities like fondling one’s own self until she obtains complete satisfaction. The conception of narcissism occupies an important position in the psychoanalytic theory. Like the theory of identification, narcissism also brought profound changes in the process of psychoanalysis.
This problem can be effectively addressed if all people are enlightened about its negative impacts on the society. The other important aspect is that people should also be enlightened about the benefits that can be derived from preventing sexual violence in different societies.
According to this theory, human behavior comes as a result of the interaction of two different evolutionary processes (Kubrin, Dain, Elizabeth and Marvin, 27). This theory denotes that a deviant behavior occurs as a result of an interaction of an individual with groups that promote such kind of a behavior.
Another way of looking at it, that this research will present, is how the adverse social conditions of some disadvantaged youth directly impact their psychological way of thinking. Juvenile crime, and crime associated with race is astounding in numbers around the youth.
The author states that the criminological theory that is applicable to this scenario is the social learning theory which states that deviant values as well as behaviors are learned by an individual when he/she is constantly in contact with social surroundings that promote deviant behavior. Social learning theory is applicable to this scenario.