“Planning means looking ahead and chalking out future courses of action to be followed. It is a preparatory step.” (Management Study Guide, 2009). Planning lays the basis for the whole project and tells what is to be managed by whom and when. Planning is essentially a process of selecting one particular course of action to achieve the organizational objectives depending upon the three project constraints of the time, cost and quality. It should be ensured while selecting the most appropriate strategy to achieve a particular objective that the expenses incurred in the way of accomplishing the task as planned lie within the budget allocated to that task and that the method promises the completion of the task within a certain time and with the quality that has been specified to the manager in the contract documents.
Organizing, as the name implies, is the art of organizing all sorts of resources including workforce, equipment and machinery. The plan provides the fundamental guidance and information regarding who is to do what, when and how. It is the manager’s responsibility to ensure that adequate number of workers has been allocated to all activities. Managers must ensure the achievement of an optimal use of machinery and equipment as they are usually scarce and their need is more than supply. Maximum use of workforce and equipment in a productive manner is fundamental to the timely achievement of the organizational objectives and hence the success of the project.
All managers are essentially leaders in their respective domains since leadership is a fundamental pre-requisite of good management. A manager needs to be effective and dominating in order to lead his subordinates and make them work as per the requirements of the schedule in the best interest of the organization and the project. “Employees see a leader as someone that motivates them and guides them to help meet the firm’s goals.” (Wanish, 2009). Good managers read the