On the other hand, Philip (2006, p. 45) describes corruption as having to involve high public office, substantial and systematic expropriation of benefits, and significant damage to the public interest. Corruption as having to involve high public office is considered as the most important of these three conditions and the other two are complementary to it. Lee (2006, p. 221) states that corruption is a destructive crime which not only undermines quality of life but also causes injustice and inflates business costs. The seriousness of this crime leads nations to improve governance by redefining the role of government, overhauling the system of incentives, and strengthening domestic institutions in order to ensure checks and balances (Rahman, et al., 2000, p. 17).
Corruption is often called “black/grey market or “underground economy” whose rules are almost similar to those of legal markets (Stachowicz-Stanusch, 2010). It is considered a risky activity because of the presence of “policing” in society (Chakrabarti and Subramanian, 2003).The economics of corruption operates in such a way as serving as a means to satisfy certain planned and desired human ends. According to Klitgaard, et al. (2000), corruption is a crime of economic calculation in that the tendency for a public official to engage in it is when there is a slim probability of being caught alongside a mild penalty with large pay-off relative to the positive incentives. Since corruption is committed within the political machinery of the state, it is not only considered an economic issue but a political issue as well (Stachowicz-Stanusch, 2010, p. 122). The economic and political aspects of corruption are certainly the basis for advocating some solutions to this problem on an economic point of view (i.e., increasing pay and rewards) and political point of view (i.e. providing political and legal basis for ...
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