The human civilizations on the banks of the great rivers suffered from seasonal variations of flood and dryness and so their early wall defences and storage systems helped to even out the extremes. Also, by introducing irrigation systems they were able to extend the reach of their agriculture, making wider and wider margins of cultivable fields. The more crops they had, the more people they could sustain, and the more armies they could form, which had the disadvantage of facilitating wars. There was also competition for the water resource which caused tensions between different groups. Sometimes irrigation disturbed the water flow further downstream and this caused conflict and hardship when water was in short supply.
The Egyptians had the most effective and long lasting leadership and this may have something to do with the way that the leaders were absolutely tied in with religious beliefs. The people regarded them with awe, and worshipped them as gods. The rulers also amassed considerable wealth through trade and the capturing of a great many slave workers, and they consolidated their power through strategic marriages and excellent diplomacy.
Government and religion were merged together in a system called Theocracy which means that the gods are in charge in Egypt, Mesopotamia and China. Kings and priests worked together and there is evidence of this in the Pyramids, which are the burial places for the priest/king rulers known as Pharaohs. Their mummies and tombs show pictures of how they ruled.
Chines rulers founded dynasties, passing power on from one generation to the next. There are relics such as books and vessels which show Chinese civilization was very advanced. The “Mandate of Heaven” is assumed to last for a certain period with each dynasty, until people rebel, and a new dynasty takes over.
The rulers created stability so that the population could produce good crops and develop societies. Different