The negative sign indicates that heat is transferred in the direction of decreasing temperature. The heat flow will be in the perpendicular-to-the-cross-section direction, i.e. one-dimensional.
To determine how much heat is provided, we will calculate how much heat is taken (absorb) by the cold water at steady state condition. (it is the condition at which heat supplied is equal to the heat removed). For this we use the relation
Where Q is the rate of heat transfer, s is specific heat capacity of water , Tout is the temperature of water at outlet and Tin is the temperature of water at inlet. Putting the value of Q in (ii), we get
The apparatus consist of accessories for providing heat at one end of sample composite bar and for taking heat at the other end of the bar through water. The water inlet temperature and outlet temperature was measured through thermometers. To determine the volume of water the measuring flask was provided. To determine the temperature at different points along the bar thermocouples were provided. The whole apparatus was well insulated to ensure one dimensional heat flow.
The heater was switched on and as the circulation of water through the cavity. Readings at thermocouples 1,2,3 and 4 were taken when the steady state condition was achieved. The volume of water circulating was measured and time taken for this. The inlet and outlet temperature of water is also measured.
Heat transfer has taken place because of the difference of temperature between two ends of sample bar (consisting of copper and stainless steel). From graph slopes of copper and stainless steel shows that drop in temperature per unit length in copper bar is less as compared to stainless steel, which indicates that copper has let more heat to be transferred through it. Similar result is given by the calculated thermal conductivities showing that copper thermal conductivity is greater as compare to stainless steel.
Conduction is defined as the transfer of energy from more energetic particles to adjacent less energetic particles as a result of interactions between the particles. Conduction can take place in solids, liquids, or gases. In solids, conduction is the combined result of molecular…
since during the manufacturing of the drug various factors such as change in temperature and moisture can alter its toxicity, actions, kinetics and dynamics as well.(Giron,2002).To understand the solid state properties and the key to efficient characterization of the compound is to formulate a strategic technique and elaborate analytical programs that enables us to understand the chemical, structural, energetic and physical states of the compound.(Lee,2003) Fundamental properties that need to be analyzed in a solid dosage form Test Method/ function Characterization Fundamental properties 1) UV spectroscopy Simple assay 2) Solubility Phase solubility/ purity 3) Melting point DSC-polymorphism
The durability of any material in its production has been a crucial aspect; a factor that calls for eventual upgrading of the raw materials. The enhancement of glass and PMC has been effected by altering their physical properties through the optical and thermal properties enhancement (Brydson, 1999).
Thermal recovery technique has enabled companies in the mining industry to increase their total yields from an oil field. The principle of physical and chemical change of substances when heated is exploited in thermal recovery. This increases the mobility and fluidity of the oil, making it easier to pump it into the production wells.
In order to assess energy efficiency in buildings the study of the correlation between construction and energy consumption is critical. This involves the study of lightweight and heavyweight construction in conjunction
These sources of energy are dwindling and have contributed much to the environmental degradation and to the damaged on the ozone layer. With the introduction of thermal energy storage, advances have been made in the efforts of optimizing the use of thermal
Ultrasonic imaging involves mechanical energy, in which pressure waves pass through tissue. An image is formed by the reflection and dispersing back to the transducer. It involves heating of tissues due to the absorption of ultrasonic waves by the tissues. Some heat is also generated at the surface of the transducer.
ctors such as change in temperature and moisture can alter its toxicity, actions, kinetics and dynamics as well.(Giron,2002).To understand the solid state properties and the key to efficient characterization of the compound is to formulate a strategic technique and elaborate
Compared to HVAC energy, it is better as HVAC energy can cause death or shock, heart failure when one comes into conduct with it. There are also explosion hazardous associated with HVAC energy (High voltage).There are
AThe author explains the principles of work of solar thermal energy. Solar thermal systems are easy to integrate into existing hot water systems. Solar thermal energy provides an ideal addition or substitution to any traditional hot water systems. These systems are highly durable with modern solar thermal systems being designed to last for 20 years.
The challenge is that the sources of the non-renewable energy are rapidly exhausting and are not able to satisfy the future demand of energy (Rathore, 2010). The non-renewable sources of energy are expensive because they are obtained at clear-cut prices.
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