Such cities includes; Oakland 17%, San Franscisco 12% and Porland 10% (Ten top cities in U.S.A for renewable energy) .
In his paper (Cleveland) explains how solar energy can be optimized. This paper represents a method of analyzing the financial costs and benefits of solar systems in commercial buildings using a model building. Assumption made are; the house is 30% below ASHRAE 90.1 standards, the owner is interested in investing on thermal technology and wanted to build the most efficient building possible, consideration of natural gases and electricity escalations as alternatives to solar energy. The model house was 50,000 sq feet and cost of building such a house in Calorina is $500,000 to 750,000 with fully installed HVAC system. Energy plus was used to map the building. The inputs for the energy plus simulation included, Raleigh, NC location, u-shaped office building of 50,000 sq ,30% energy savings among others and this led to projection output of heating system capacity 641 kBtu/hr (includes hot water usage), 87 tons of cooling capacity required, annual HVAC electricity use and annual natural gas use, hot water cooling. The model house was used to run 2 cooling scenarios one with traditional HVAC as control building and the other one with traditional cooling system and solar heating and cooling system (solar building).The sizing of thermal loads of absorption chiller was based on information sourced from energy plus and this ensured that it had that same output as HVAC system. The amount of solar thermal energy supplied to heating water, heating space and cooling the space was calculated using RET screen which is able to estimate energy production, savings ,cost, viability and risks of various renewable energy and energy efficient techniques. In order to determine the comparative value of solar heating and cooling system and traditional HVAC system, net present value (NPV) of each system
It is a renewable energy and is used in many different ways such as in heating, cooling and in lighting when harnessed through use of photovoltatic panels. In…
since during the manufacturing of the drug various factors such as change in temperature and moisture can alter its toxicity, actions, kinetics and dynamics as well.(Giron,2002).To understand the solid state properties and the key to efficient characterization of the compound is to formulate a strategic technique and elaborate analytical programs that enables us to understand the chemical, structural, energetic and physical states of the compound.(Lee,2003) Fundamental properties that need to be analyzed in a solid dosage form Test Method/ function Characterization Fundamental properties 1) UV spectroscopy Simple assay 2) Solubility Phase solubility/ purity 3) Melting point DSC-polymorphism
These sources of energy are dwindling and have contributed much to the environmental degradation and to the damaged on the ozone layer. With the introduction of thermal energy storage, advances have been made in the efforts of optimizing the use of thermal
In gases and liquids, conduction is due to the collisions and diffusion of the molecules during their random motion.
where Q is the rate of heat conduction (or heat transfer per unit time) , A is the cross-sectional area, and ∆T/L is
ctors such as change in temperature and moisture can alter its toxicity, actions, kinetics and dynamics as well.(Giron,2002).To understand the solid state properties and the key to efficient characterization of the compound is to formulate a strategic technique and elaborate
AThe author explains the principles of work of solar thermal energy. Solar thermal systems are easy to integrate into existing hot water systems. Solar thermal energy provides an ideal addition or substitution to any traditional hot water systems. These systems are highly durable with modern solar thermal systems being designed to last for 20 years.
The challenge is that the sources of the non-renewable energy are rapidly exhausting and are not able to satisfy the future demand of energy (Rathore, 2010). The non-renewable sources of energy are expensive because they are obtained at clear-cut prices.
The author states that solar energy has many advantages in Hong Kong since there is abundant sunlight. High-rise and high-density urban environment often create difficulties for energy applications. There have been interesting results derived from using solar systems. Wind and solar energy have been proposed to be used in the "Hong Kong Disneyland”.