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Morphine - Essay Example

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Author : esperanza31

Summary

The article operates mainly based on research questions which can be stated as follows: Whether the bioavailability is influenced by gastrointestinal absorption, first pass hepatic extraction or both? To achieve this goal the paper will determine and state the oral bioavailability.

Extract of sample
Morphine

The study has shown that morphine is metabolized to M6G which is a potent analgesic thereby increasing the effectiveness of the drug in some situations. As a rule, the metabolism of morphine comes through uridine diphosphate glucuronosyl transferase (UGT) enzymes which are found in the liver. The enzymes form active analgesic metabolites and in some cases toxic metabolites as well. This would indicate that environmental factors that could inhibit or increase the effectiveness of morphine would include conjoint use of other drugs that reduce or inhibit the effect of liver enzymes; liver disease or a liver dysfunction and any drugs that can increase enzyme levels in the liver itself. According to the AHFS drug information the bioavailability is influenced by gastrointestinal absorption but the amount of bioavailability depends on the method that is used to administer it. In reality the bioavailability is almost 90% first pass hepatic extraction. This is supported by literature that suggests that the clearance rate for morphine is longer in those individuals who have hepatic impairment. In most cases the morphine is metabolized in the liver and dispersed through urination. The rate of conventional oral preparations (immediate release) and the extended release oral versions are about the same but there is a difference in peak plasma concentrations which are longer and lower with the extended release oral preparation. ...
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