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Introduction: Cigarette smoking continues to be one of the major causes of avertable morbidity and early mortality. The primary causes of death from smoking are due to cardiovascular diseases, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and lung cancer. Smoking increases the risk of fatal heart diseases, atherosclerosis, stroke, diabetes, hypertension, lung cancer and cancers of mouth, throat, pancreas, kidney, bladder and cervix (Gerhardt and Stuart, 2009)…
In a population of 45 million adults in U.S. 21% are cigarette smokers (Gerhardt and Stuart, 2009). Major component of cigarette; nicotine is extremely addictive and it increases the level of dopamine in brain creating feelings of satisfaction and contentment. Cessation of smoking causes withdrawal symptoms. Smoking cessation ensures a better health quality of life by reducing the risks of coronary artery disease, stroke and COPD. According to Pignone and Salazar (2009), smoking cessation can increase life expectancy of up to 3 years in women smokers and 2 years in men. In other researches, the life expectancy of a non-smoker is 13-14 years higher than a smoker (Chandler and Rennard, 2010). Studies have confirmed that smoking cessation has inflicts immediate health benefits to the individual. Several interventions are successful in smoking cessation which includes counseling, pharmacotherapy or a combination of both. In this respect, the most important factor is client’s self chosen health goal to quit smoking and both pharmacotherapy and counseling prove to be useful for such patients, however, in patients with unwilling behavior to quit pharmacotherapy is ineffective. ...
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