In the paper “Respiratory failure – Case Study” the author defines respiratory failure as a condition in which the function of the respiratory system has altered in such a way that the partial pressure of oxygen or PaO2 is less than 50mmHg…
A fall arterial oxygen tension (Pa, O2) of <8.0 kPa (60 mmHg) and an arterial carbon dioxide tension (Pa, CO2) of >6.0 kPa (45 mmHg) or both, is indicative of respiratory failure (Roussos and Koutsoukou, 2003). Respiratory failure may be acute or chronic. In case of Wilson, the respiratory failure is acute and this is indicated by the drastic change in the acid-base status (pH= 7.3). The cause of respiratory failure in him is the right lower lobe collapse-consolidation secondary to pneumonia. Lower respiratory tract infection is known as pneumonia. The pathology lies in the parenchyma of the lungs which consist of alveolar sacs. There are several causes of pneumonia, the most common of which is bacterial (Stephen, 2009). Bacterial pneumonia can be community acquired or hospital-acquired. In case of Wilson, the pneumonia is hospital acquired.
Decreased oxygen saturation: Acute respiratory failure occurs when the body is unable to maintain gas exchange at a rate on par with the demands of the body like in pneumonia. The damage to lung parenchyma in pneumonia results in the release of inflammatory mediators and fluids because of which intrapulmonary shunting, ventilation-perfusion mismatching, hypoventilation and diffusion defects occur (Stephen, 2009). All these eventually lead to hypoxemia which is evident in the blood gas analysis of Wilson (Ranjit, 2001). In ventilation-perfusion mismatch, areas which have lower ventilation as against perfusion contribute to hypoxemia. ...
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