A. is an apparently healthy 26-year-old white woman. Since the beginning of the current golf season, Ms. A has noted increased shortness of breath and low levels of energy and enthusiasm. These symptoms seem worse during her menses. Today, while playing in a golf tournament…
a and dysmenorrheal have been a problem for 10-12 years, and I take 1,000 mg of aspirin every 3 to 4 hours for 6 days during menstruation.” During the summer months, while playing golf, she also takes aspirin to avoid “stiffness in my joints.”
Answer: Anemia is defined as lower than normal values of the total hemoglobin concentration in the blood or the hematocrit concentrations. The normal hemoglobin levels in women are 12.0-15.0 gm/dL and the hematocrit concentrations are 33%-43% (Kumar et al 2005). Ms A, the subject of the case, presents with presenting complaints of dyspnea, fatigue, light-headedness and low levels of energy. According to her, these symptoms have worsened during her golf sessions held at a high altitude area. Her vitals showed an increased respiratory and heart rate, low blood pressure and a low-grade fever of 98F. Her past medical history reflects dysmenorrhea and menorrhagia for 10-12 years. Her current medication includes aspirin.
Ms A. presents with a decreased hemoglobin level of 8g/dL and hence she has manifested with a clinical picture of anemia which include shortness of breath, tachycardia, fatigability, dizziness, low levels of concentration, pallor, weakness, headaches and sleep abnormalities (Hillman et al 2005). Hypoxia of central nervous system causes faintness and headaches while myocardial hypoxia results in palpitations and increased heart rates (Kumar et al 2005). She has a history of chronic blood loss which is due to menorrhagia. Other causes of chronic blood loss include gastrointestinal bleeding, malignant diseases and urinary bleeding. Chronic blood loss anemia results from blood loss in small amounts, which occurs over a long period of time and it results in iron deficiency anemia because the iron stores of the body are depleted. Consequently, the oxygen-carrying capacity of the red blood cells is reduced and the patient presents with signs and symptoms of anemia. The clinical features of the chronic blood loss ...
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