This would enable detection of the levels upon which the tube would be removed from the patient (David 2009, 1).
Chest drain systems consist of collection chamber and mechanism that prevents air and fluid from re-entering the pleural cavity. They may have wet or dry properties that are aimed at draining the chest and preventing air from getting into the cavity. The wet system use water while the dry system uses suction mechanism instead of water to seal the opening and prevent air from re-entering the pleural cavity (Brunner and Day, 2009, 716).
Patients undergo a lot of pain during cardiac surgeries that involve the chest drain removal from the pleural membrane of the chest. This chest drain removal would be aimed at draining fluids and air form the lungs and subsequent expansion of the lungs. These tubes would be often removed when the condition is better within a period of not less than 3 days after the surgery (SH Sane, 2008, 43). The experience is painful and highly unpleasant to the patients (SH Sane, 2008, 43). This would result in development of negative emotions in the patients. Doctors and medical experts, being aware of this have developed their own procedures and methods of relieving pain in the affected patients. Drugs such as topical Valdecoxib, fentanyl and sufentanil, would be used in curbing the problem of controlling pain (SH Sane, 2008, 43).
Most patients have confirmed that chest tube removal (CTR) is a painful experience. This would prompt quick action aimed at reducing complications associated with it and reduction of pain. This would be as a result of inadequate management of pain during recuperation. It has also been confirmed that most countries have not set standards that would be used in pain management (Fischer and Bland, 2007, 769).
According to Puntillo & Ley (2004, 294), morphine is the most common drug used in the management of ...
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