Asthma is a chronic respiratory disease which is a considerable drain on healthcare resources in terms of costs, manpower, morbidity and mortality (Akinbami, Moorman & Liu, 2011). Chronic diseases like asthma are best managed with a collaborative effort between physicians,…
As a part of optimal care, it is essential to formulate a nursing care plan for each patient, which includes assessment and diagnosis of the patient’s condition, identifying the goals of the management, interventions and management plan to achieve those goals and the rationale behind these interventions, expected outcomes and discharge and home care guidance. However, prior to formulation of the nursing care plan, the basic pathophysiology of asthma has to be understood.
Asthma is characterized by hyperreactive airways associated with partially or completely reversible airway obstruction. There is chronic and recurrent inflammation of the airways and airway obstruction results mainly because of airway narrowing caused by smooth muscle constriction in response to various stimuli. Additional obstruction occurs because of plugging of airways with mucous plugs (Mitchell, Kumar, Abbas, & Fausto, 2006).
Because the airways are hyperreactive, a large number of otherwise normal stimuli become the instigators of a cycle of inflammatory cells activation. These can be allergens such as pollens, dust, smoke, exhaust fumes & other irritants, respiratory infection, cold, exercise and certain drugs. When any of these stimuli are encountered, inflammatory cells, primarily mast cells, macrophages and eosinophils, are recruited. As an immediate reaction, mast cells coated with IgE release inflammatory mediators (leukotrienes and cytokines) which cause smooth muscle constriction, edema and mucous formation, all of which compromise lumen of the airways. Other lymphocytes are then recruited and further escalate the chain of events leading to bronchospasm and other clinical manifestations (Mitchell, Kumar, Abbas, & Fausto, 2006).
Nurses caring for five year old children suffering from asthma may encounter their patients on an outpatient basis, in emergency department or as ward nurses. They are required to ...
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A paternalistic approach to teaching and learning will not work because the patient will not be always with the medical professionals. If family members and/or the child are made to over-rely on the medical professionals, medical help may come either too late for child.
Asthma is a chronic inflammation of airways characterized by continuous and developing inflammatory process that later produces variable clinical presentation such as cough, wheezing etc. Acute inflammation results in broncho-spasm while chronic inflammation affects airway caliber and airflow, thus causing bronchial hyper-responsiveness.
Asthma is a prominent cause of impaired quality of life, use of primary health care, and mortality, and has economic ramifications through widespread prescription drug use and hospital admissions (Anderson et al., 2007). Risk factors for asthma in adults include female gender, poor lung function, atopy, nasal allergy, obesity, parental asthma, respiratory infections in early life, and high-risk occupations (Anto et al., 2010).
One of the major causes of mortality in UK is asthma as Anderson, et al. (2007, p.85) stated in their review that the current trend in prevalence of diagnosed chronic asthma continues to increase since 1950s. This leaves the hospitals and care homes with the dilemma of facing the multidisciplinary issues adjunct with chronic asthma and other debilitating disorders.
Asthma is a chronic respiratory disease which is a considerable drain on healthcare resources in terms of costs, manpower, morbidity and mortality (Akinbami, Moorman & Liu, 2011). Chronic diseases like asthma are best managed with a collaborative effort between physicians, nursing staff, patients and their family members (Wooler, 2011) As the prevalence of asthma among children has been increasing over the years (Akinbami, Moorman, Garbe & Sondik, 2009), nurses have come to play a key role in the specialist care of pediatric patients requiring management of acute and emergency episodes as well as ongoing care of chronic asthma.
Asthma is known to be a chronic disease, encompassing varied and frequent symptoms resulting in impediment of reversible airflow due to inflammation of inner walls of airways, generating sensitivity to irritations and thereby augments susceptibility to allergies.
It is suggested that educational interventions designed to address these factors might improve outcomes in at-risk patients. Existing reviews of this paper involving interactive education, training in self-management and targeting specific health behaviour issues resulting from or impacting on asthma, suggest that educational interventions are effective and potentially cost-effective in general asthma populations.
While some individuals find asthma to be simply a nuisance, it can become a life-threatening problem for others. Asthma cannot be cured, but there are treatments available for symptoms. The most typical treatments for asthma sufferers include a
The major cause of the disease is attributed to the inflammation of the bronchial passages and this in turn affects the sensitive nerve terminals resulting in their irritability and functional disruption. During an attack the
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