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Asthma; children 5 years old: nursing care plan, pathophysiology of asthma - Essay Example

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Asthma is a chronic respiratory disease which is a considerable drain on healthcare resources in terms of costs, manpower, morbidity and mortality (Akinbami, Moorman & Liu, 2011). Chronic diseases like asthma are best managed with a collaborative effort between physicians,…
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Asthma; children 5 years old: nursing care plan, pathophysiology of asthma
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Asthma; children 5 years old: nursing care plan, pathophysiology of asthma

As a part of optimal care, it is essential to formulate a nursing care plan for each patient, which includes assessment and diagnosis of the patient’s condition, identifying the goals of the management, interventions and management plan to achieve those goals and the rationale behind these interventions, expected outcomes and discharge and home care guidance. However, prior to formulation of the nursing care plan, the basic pathophysiology of asthma has to be understood.
Asthma is characterized by hyperreactive airways associated with partially or completely reversible airway obstruction. There is chronic and recurrent inflammation of the airways and airway obstruction results mainly because of airway narrowing caused by smooth muscle constriction in response to various stimuli. Additional obstruction occurs because of plugging of airways with mucous plugs (Mitchell, Kumar, Abbas, & Fausto, 2006).
Because the airways are hyperreactive, a large number of otherwise normal stimuli become the instigators of a cycle of inflammatory cells activation. These can be allergens such as pollens, dust, smoke, exhaust fumes & other irritants, respiratory infection, cold, exercise and certain drugs. When any of these stimuli are encountered, inflammatory cells, primarily mast cells, macrophages and eosinophils, are recruited. As an immediate reaction, mast cells coated with IgE release inflammatory mediators (leukotrienes and cytokines) which cause smooth muscle constriction, edema and mucous formation, all of which compromise lumen of the airways. Other lymphocytes are then recruited and further escalate the chain of events leading to bronchospasm and other clinical manifestations (Mitchell, Kumar, Abbas, & Fausto, 2006).
Nurses caring for five year old children suffering from asthma may encounter their patients on an outpatient basis, in emergency department or as ward nurses. They are required to ... Read More
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