In regard to presentation as per the specifications of DSM-5, bipolar disorder patients exhibit manic and depressive episodes. They experience high and low variations in behavior, energy and mood. In manic episodes, certain symptoms must be presented. They include restlessness, excitement, and lack sleep for days, racing ideas filled with new concepts of their life goals, full of thoughts and talk excessively. In depressive episodes, certain symptoms must be presented. They include low self-esteem, easily annoyed and bad-tempered and are mostly engaged in arguments and fights, lack of concentration, lack of achievement of objectives, depressed mood, fatigue, and insomnia (Peacock, 2000). In regard to presentation as per the specifications of DSM-5, panic disorder patients are expected to exhibit unexpected panic attacks as they are always suffering from immoderate worries which are uncontrollable. Moreover, patients suffering from this disease center their attention on financial issues, absence of confidence, relationships, and hopeless future (Heimberg, Turk & Mennin, 2004). Neither substance abuse nor medical conditions are contributing factors to anxiety ...
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(“Pathophysiology Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words - 5”, n.d.)
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(Pathophysiology Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 Words - 5)
“Pathophysiology Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 Words - 5”, n.d. https://studentshare.net/nursing/713039-pathophysiology.
Ms. A is experiencing symptoms of fatigue and shortness in breath which depicts that she is suffering from iron deficiency anemia (Bostock 21). One of the major causes of iron deficiency anemia is blood loss (Cullis 290). This further reaffirms Ms. A’s iron deficiency anemia because she has been suffering from menorrhagia and dysmenorrheal for more than 10 years.
The herniations appear as small pouches and are lined only by the mucosa. Diverticula occur any where in the intestine. They are however most common in the colon. Inadequate intake of fibre in the diet, along with abnormal motility of the colon have been attributed towards the pathogenesis of diverticulosis (Stollman and Raskin, 2004).
However, the commonest cause of hyperglycemia is diabetes mellitus (Antonetti & Klein, 2012). There are a variety of conditions that cause hyperglycaemia apart from diabetes mellitus. For instance, during increased levels of stress such as trauma, surgery, shock, and acute
Acute nephritic syndromes are such symptoms that have disorders that lead to glomerulonephritis or inflammation of the glomeruli. The inflammation begins with an infection or an injury such as a burn or trauma. This
As such, hypertension is of two kinds: Essential Hypertension and Secondary Hypertension. Most cases of hypertension fall in the category of essential hypertension because no specific cause of patients condition of hypertension is found in this category. The
act strongly enough to push blood through the body, while diastolic failure occurs when the left ventricle cannot relax enough to allow in more blood due to stiffening of the muscles. Common causes of left-sided heart failure include excessive consumption of alcohol, history of
The most essential primary preventive measures are proper diet, avoidance of stress, stop smoking, regular exercise (Balakrishnan, 2004). However, age and gender is non-modifiable risk factors meaning there is nothing much that one can do to modify them. Five
Reliever inhalers are prescribed to reduce the asthma signs, and they do not minimize the swelling and inflammation in the airway (Wojciechowski, 2011). People suffering from mild asthma are treated with inhaled corticosteroid combined with a
Ally’s eyes because it offers a highly defined three-dimensional view that enables the physician to see the presence of detachment or retinal holes. Similarly, the doctor should use the ultrasonography to create images of the retina on a video monitor