The Human Genome Project (HGP) is a scientific research project that aims at identifying the sequence of chemical bases found in the human DNA. Its objectives were set by a National Research Council report issued in 1988 in USA. It has long been believed that diseases tend…
4). The genetic code found in our DNA, has many potential insights for individual resistances and susceptibilities to diseases.
The HGP is quite distinct from other biomedical research because it has been defined by a series of very quantifiable and concrete goals. For example, it has been used to construct physical and genetic maps. These maps have been used as vital research tools and have proved to be invaluable in determining more than 100 genes involved in diseases such as achondroplasia, breast cancer, colon cancer, and Huntington disease.
HGP has simplified the human genetic code as well as animals and plants in a four-letter alphabet. These chemical constituents of each DNA molecule are A (adenine), C (cytosine), G (guanine) and T (thymine). The project has been able to explain that there are 23 pairs of chromosomes in each human cell, and each contains millions of these nucleotides. Through the project, it has been proved that there are 3 billion nucleotides. Studies on these chromosomes have been used clinically to explain to expectant mothers if they are going to give birth to a baby boy or girl.
HGP has led to improved techniques of genetic screening for various diseases before birth. A genetic library has been created. This library contains genetic information of relatively homogeneous regions in human DNA. Therefore, individuals do not have considerable variability at this locus. If it is found out that a genetic disease is produced from a specific allele or mutation being present, screening can be done to identify who the individuals are.
It is now possible to determine the chances that a child might inherit genetic disorders associated with parents by analyzing the parental gamete DNA. This has allowed genetic disorders to be corrected before birth. Research is also being carried on rapid selection and insertion of DNA into human individuals; these may soon lead to reproduction ...
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