Bipolar disorder (BD) is a debilitating, chronic mental illness that is characterized by rapid mood changes and usually affects adolescents and young adults. The typical clinical presentation includes alternating episodes of mania with hyperactivity, euphoria, and behavioral…
Genetic factors are considered to be the leading contributor to the disease, accounting for up to 80% of the risk of having the illness. The heritability index was calculated to be around 0.7 (Edvardsen 2008). Despite having been restricted to a relatively low number of samples, twin studies have revealed a considerable genetic component, together with a clear environmental impact. Extensive studies over the last years have consistently estimated the concordance rate for bipolar I disorder to be around 5% in fraternal twins, in comparison to over 40% in identical twins (Barnett & Smoller 2009).
Studies have also identified certain physiological processes underlying the bipolar disorder. For instance, by means of magnetic resonance imaging researchers have noted the differences in the volume and density of various brain zones between the healthy individuals and patients with BD. Specifically, the analysis of structural MRI findings provided evidence of the increased volume of the pale body and lateral ventricles (Arnone et al 2009). Simultaneously, functional MRI scans indicated the impaired coordination between the limbic corpus amygdaloideum and prefrontal region (Srakowski et al 2012).
According to another theory, when genetically predisposed people are exposed to stress, their stress threshold at which behavioral changes happen lowers. After a number of such exposures, the episodes may start spontaneously. In support of the theory, Alloy and Bender (2011) report of the correlation between stressful situations and malfunction of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. Stress factors cause hypothalamic hyperactivation, which may eventually result in disease.
Some researchers imply the major contribution of the environmental factors to the development of bipolar disorder. Evidence suggests that broken interpersonal relationships and hurtful early-life events may increase the risk of onsets and induce ...
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(Bipolar Disorder Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 Words)
“Bipolar Disorder Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 Words”, n.d. https://studentshare.net/nursing/784825-bipolar-disorder.
At one moment they would be in a cheerful or good mood, in the next minute, depression would fall upon them, no matter what the reason. Irritation, Sleeping patterns get disrupted, concentration level falls, feelings of anxiety and worry, eating habits get changed, fall in energy levels is observed and they feel discomfort from their surroundings.
These two episodes have their own characteristics which will be explained. The psychiatric illness can be treated by giving medications as well as other forms of therapy. The different pharmacological treatments along with the other therapies will be analyzed.
Mania is described as high levels of hyperactivity, energy and impulsivity, with bipolar depression having many similarities to those suffering from unipolar depression (). It is probably this tendency to change between the highs and the lows of the disorder that leads to many having difficulties in treatment, and for physicians to have difficulty treating bipolar patients.
There are extreme disruptions in mood for those who are bipolar, so much so that these mood changes can affect relationships, job or school performance, and even lead to thoughts of suicide. It affects energy levels and ability to function and a person could be a danger to self and others in a state of severe mania.
It is a long-term disorder, and requires careful management by way of lifestyle changes to manage across the lifespan. This paper will review the literature pertaining to bipolar disorder. Firstly a description of the psychosocial disorder will be presented.
Johnson, Gustavo J. Rey, Mark A. Blais, Ana Rivas-Vazquez (2002). Since most people who are afflicted by this type of ailment are within their most productive age group, one estimate quoted that this type of diseases cost
It can be simply defined as a psychological problem associated with mood, in which a person experiences mania, which is excessive happiness, irritation or excitement. On the other hand, they experience low moods known as depression in which they feel sad, suicidal, and lonely
I plan to educate the family on the difference between bipolar disorder and major depression and treatment. I will also clarify on hereditary issues on bipolar disorder.
Bipolar disorder presents itself into two
Mood changes associated with Bipolar Disorder prove to be recurrent and can cause high levels of disability as well as premature deaths if it progresses to the chronic stage. Bipolar disorder exhibits itself in a cycle of episodes with the person being highly excited at one point and badly depressed at other times.
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