C) Lipps and Riebold (2005, p.1) insists that life can thrive in some harsh environments. The areas include tidal flux, hydrothermal vents, chemical disequilibria, sunlight, ocean energy, and the abundance of life-sustaining nutrients, as discussed in chapter 4 of the text (Keynes 2004). Specifically, the liquid ocean flowing below Europa’s solid icy surface can produce new living objects. Both authors stated that there are several life forms thriving in inhospitably high temperatures, low temperatures, and other unwarranted living conditions (Keynes, 2004, p.13). Consequently, life can thrive in the unwelcome high salinity areas of Jupiter’s moon, Europa. Likewise, there are strong probabilities that Europa’s life conditions create new life where the current light conditions are enough for certain living creatures to survive. The living creatures thrive in Europa (Lipps & Lieboldt, 2005, p.2). Further, Europa’s current light conditions, only 20 percent of the Earth’s possible land creatures, are similar to early earth’s viable living conditions (Irwin, 2010, p. 178). To enhance living conditions, as Europa orbits Jupiter, Jupiter’s gravitational pull on Europa produces heat creation (Perkowitz, 2007, p. 38). The authors stated that life can exist in many nooks, crevices, open space, or other ocean.
Question 2. Titan’s atmosphere, limb darkening, includes a vast chemical laboratory of several complex reactions. Titan’s atmospheric photochemical (molecule) reactions between the upper atmosphere (composed of Nitrogen and other elements) and hydrocarbons (continually dissolving methane) to produce other hydrocarbons, such as ethane. The chemical reactions of the molecules generate the atmosphere’s radiation, similar to early earth’s situation (p. 180).
Question 3. A). Exoplanets are planets revolving outside the earth’s solar system. The discoverer