y catastrophic, directly linked to great economic loss, increased human and wildlife vulnerability, altered land and water habitation; as well as compounded risks of fire, drought/famine and flooding situations.
The debate on whether these contexts are because of either human (anthropogenic) or natural factors, continues ranging on. Fundamentally, the basis for natural factors is founded upon both the aspects of: alterations to the Earth’s orbit, and solar changes. As shown by Hayhoe, evidence of the link between the earth’s changes and the sun is presented through combined analysis of: - the recorded frequency of sunspots, geo-magnetic activity and historical temperature deviations solar changes and the earth’s orbit are interrelated in terms of the effects of the sun’s radiation in relation to the periodic shifts in the earth’s orbit. These shifts influence the way sunlight falls on, and subsequently warms the earth (Hayhoe).
However, temperature increases in relation to the two, were observed during the first half of the 21st century, with the last three decades going against the expected ‘cooling phase.’ This hence portrays a different causal factor other than the aforementioned relationship; based upon predictions, which portrayed an expected cooling state. Importantly is the fact that the temperature rise has been systematically observed in the land, ocean and atmospheric heat content, with ocean heat content being estimated at twenty times that of land surface, cryosphere (ice) and atmosphere combined (Hayhoe).
However, volcanoes are an exception, affecting climatic change in terms of methane and carbon dioxide release; abate at a lesser extent. These two gases are influential heat-trapping gases, with natural causes being a minor contributor (Oppenheimer 230). Critical here, is that human activities have increasingly resulted in the production of the two gases (Kasting and Siefert 1066). The two absorb earth’s heat, making the earth