As the essay stresses language diversity has always existed in America. It has never declared any national language in the last 200 years. Until two decades ago, Americans did not have to provide bilingual ballots, education, publications, and similar services at public expense. To manage diversity many nations had to declare an official language but America did not have to. In the 19th century state laws, constitution and legislative proceedings appeared in languages as diverse as Welsh, Norwegian, Czech, Spanish, French, and German. America has migrants from many countries of the world. Three US States are officially bilingual. Louisiana has English and French, New Mexico (English and Spanish), and Hawaii (English and Hawaiian).
This discussion declares that it is impossible to generalize the meaning of an official language. If a small country like Iceland declares an official language it is workable but it is not practical for a country like Canada. Recently the colony of Puerto Rico ended its official bilingualism in favor of Spanish as its sole official language. Japan is not adopting English as the second official language and it fears that it would lose its leading position in the world. It fears losing its culture if English is added as the second official language. Canada is officially bilingual under the Official Languages Act and the Constitution of Canada that require the federal government to deliver services in both official languages, namely English and French. Approximately 25% of Canadians speak French.