This report stressses that the post-Second World War international economic order is characterized by the rise of intergovernmental organizations, such as the United Nations (UN), International Monetary Fund (IMF), World Bank and World Trade Organization (WTO), among others. Multilateralism and trade liberalization appeared to fight the economic depression after the war. However, these institutions have been questioned in the pessimist view of globalization.
TAll the authors considered in this essay acknowledge the influence of globalization in the nation-state. Although globalization is an unstoppable force, it will not destroy the nation-state. However, the changes are significant and undeniable. The possibility of a marginalization of the nation-state, due to the forces of global institutions and markets, depends on the role of each state to manage globalization and the processes involved in it, according to the social and economic objectives of a nation-state, which keeps its sovereignty. Globalization implies risks and hazards, but it can be channelled to support national objectives. To avoid the negative influence of free trade, it is important that nation-states recover the concern on people’s interest. A continuous debate on the global economic regime is essential to reinforce the role of the state. In this globalising era, nation-states not only are able to survive, but also may strengthen their national identity with an increase of hybrid identities and cosmopolitan features.