Their focus on efficiency forgets to incorporate modern aspects of democracy like social wellbeing and equity (Frederickson, 2010).
Frederickson describes public administration as the management of public services in an efficient, economical and coordinated manner. This is the classical view where focus was made on the top level units of administration that were involved in management, planning, system analysis and budgeting. He then incorporated his view of new public administration which now introduced the concept of social equity. Public administration, according to him seeks to answer three questions: how can governments offer more and better services with the available resource? How can government maintain the current level of budgeted spending? And lastly, how can the above objectives be attained while ensuring social equity?
Frederickson uses social equity to represent various social aspects in public administration. According to him, social equity entails various proponents designed to improve the economic wellbeing and political power of the society’s minority groups. New public administration seeks to bring about change to the old forms of governance that were constraints to social equity. The specific propositions brought forward by Frederickson in support of new public administration were: programming-planning-budgeting (PPB) systems, social indicators and executive inventories. Executive inventories were aimed at improving and monitoring the behavior of public officials. PPB was used to ensure effective control of the uniformed forces. Social indicators could show the level of desired change among the masses (Frederickson, 2010).
As discussed above, Landau was only concerned with streamlining public administrations by eliminating the problems of overlapping and duplication caused by redundant units in an organization. Little focus was done on the economical use of resources within the administrative