Moreover, there was frustrating relationship between Iran politics as well as the hostage crisis. This happened after Americans allowed the leaders of Shah to settle in the country. This infuriated majority of Iranians that attacked the American embassy and took 58 American hostages. The other factors that prompted the adoption of the doctrine were attacked on Mecca’s Grand Mosque that was blamed on United States. The blame led to the burning of the American embassy in Islamabad (Bogle, 2001). United States was perceived in the region as being hostile to Muslim. The situation was complicated by the Soviet Union invasion of Afghanistan at the end of December 1979 (Bogle, 2001). The invasion was seen as an offensive to Americans as well as a threat to United States interest in the region. The changes taking place in the region led to President Carter’s State of the Union message in January 1980 (Bogle, 2001). The president noted that any force that was seeking to gain control of Persian Gulf region would be perceived as a threat to United States of America interests (Bogle, 2001). Hence, Carter noted that such a move would be opposed by all means necessary including military force. This was seen as a new Carter Doctrine. Hence, United States assumed the overall responsibility for the region defense a departure from Nixon Doctrine.
There was reduced interaction between United States and Afghanistan during the cold war period before adoption of the doctrine. In this period, United States offered little guarantee to Afghanistan security as it offered no direct military assistance. At the time, Afghanistan had sought help to contain the Soviet Union (Barfield, 2010). The failure of guarantee from United States made the country remain neutral. The decision to remain neutral was also based on perceived closer relationship that occurred between United States and neighboring Iran and Pakistan. Hence, Afghanistan was of little interest to United